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Every aerobic aquatic animal had to solve the problem of extracting oxygen from the water, and there was diversity in that accomplishment. Key Cambrian animals such as and had very high-surface-area-to-body-volume ratios, which allowed diffusion to provide their oxygen. Immobile animals such as sponges and coral had to position themselves where oxygenated water flowed past or through them. Sponges , designed to passively draw water through them. The position and structure of reefs facilitated those oxygen-providing dynamics, so corals helped create the conditions that sustained them; the calcified exoskeletons of corals dissuaded predation built the reefs.

He said he had pain in his head.

He asked them to stay with him, not to be frightened by what ever happened not to call a docyor.

After a time he told them he was 'going off'.

As will be seen in this chapter, the spread of behaviorally modern humans closely coincided not only with the extinction of humans and primates that existed for hundreds of thousands and even millions of years, but virtually all of the world’s large animals went extinct almost when behaviorally modern humans arrived, all except those that had evolved alongside the human line for millions of years in Africa and Eurasia. Some vanished animals were among the most successful in Earth’s history.

His face was weary and full of pain.

To briefly revisit , to that speculation above, scientists ideally want persuasive evidence that humans drove and to extinction. They want Acheulean or later technological artifacts associated with kills of those species. All that scientists have found for so far are some teeth and jawbones. Although such deductive reasoning is sound, the fossil and artifactual record is so thin that such evidence will probably never be adduced, even if it was a common event 150-100 kya. survived for nine million years and disappeared around when more lethal humans arrived, and a , soon after anatomically modern humans arrived in the vicinity. Is that a coincidence? There is genetic evidence that behaviorally modern humans interbred with , , and perhaps , and they all went extinct soon after those behaviorally modern humans arrived. That they interbred put to bed the hypotheses that they went extinct before arrived on the scene. If they went extinct after behaviorally modern humans arrived, as the genetic evidence clearly tells us, the implications are obvious, and any extinction hypothesis that invokes climate change or some other natural catastrophe has some high hurdles to overcome. Those events were probably early salvos of the .

This 'going off' was what has always happened in the past during 'the process'.
He asked them who they were and whether they knew Nitya (K's brother who died years before).

He came fully took charge complete charge.

There was a “” in the early Triassic, and depending on the framework and which scientist is asked, it took Earth’s ecosystems (when the environment recovered enough to sustain normal ecosystems), (when terrestrial ecosystem diversity recovered), or (when marine ecosystem diversity recovered) to recover from the Permian extinction. On land, the forests slowly recovered, and dominated the early Triassic. dominated the Southern Hemisphere, and palm-tree-resembling and ginkgo trees (which first appeared in the late Permian, of which the living fossil is the only surviving member) also prospered. In the , on what became North America, Europe, and Siberia, conifer forests recovered and blanketed the land.

He then spoke of Nitya, told them that he was dead, that he loved him and wept for him.

They have burned me so that there can be more emptiness.

All animals, , use aerobic respiration today, and early animals (, which are called metazoans today) may have also used aerobic respiration. Before the rise of eukaryotes, the dominant life forms, bacteria and archaea, had many chemical pathways to generate energy as they farmed that potential electron energy from a myriad of substances, such as , and photosynthesizers got their donor electrons from hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, , , and other chemicals. If there is potential energy in electron bonds, bacteria and archaea will often find ways to harvest it. Many archaean and bacterial species thrive in harsh environments that would quickly kill any complex life, and those hardy organisms are called . In harsh environments, those organisms can go dormant for millennia and , waiting for appropriate conditions (usually related to available energy). In some environments, it can .

He asked whether they were nervous but did not appear at all interested in the reply.

Later Krishnamurti commented: 'that was a very narrow shave.

The Triassic began hot and ended hot, and the Jurassic and Cretaceous were also hot, so staying warm was not a significant issue for dinosaurs. stayed cool by becoming aquatic, and for land-based dinosaurs, features such as plates apparently replaced the sails of for both heating and cooling, and like the synapsid sail, those plates may have also been used for display. Also, like the cliché, many large herbivorous dinosaurs lived near cooling swamps, although the issue has been controversial. Cooling swamps and protective water holes that we see in the tropics today were a major aspect of Mesozoic landscapes. But the thermoregulatory aspect that most work is directed toward today is how dinosaurs kept warm. There is compelling evidence that dinosaurs regulated their body temperature in myriad ways, including internal chemistry. All bipedal animals today are endotherms and they all have four-chambered hearts, as dinosaurs did. , dinosaurs living near the poles (, ), and of dinosaur bones all support the idea that , but one of the more intriguing areas is that of . Like tree rings, bones have seasonal growth rings and they have been read for many dinosaur fossils. They have been used to determine dinosaurian life expectancies. could live to be about 30, giant could live to be 50, and smaller dinosaurs, as with smaller mammals, lived shorter lives. The tiny ones only lived three-to-four years and the mid-sized ones lived seven-to-fifteen years. Growth rates also provide thermoregulation evidence. Tyrannosaurs had juvenile growth spurts and largely stopped growing as adults, and sauropods had growth rates equivalent to today’s whales, which are Earth’s fastest growing animals. But there is also evidence of ectothermic dynamics. The great size of dinosaurs would have led to relatively easy ways to stay warm, as large animals have a greater mass-to-surface area ratio, like the way in which . Also, in the generally hot Mesozoic times, staying warm would have been fairly easy, particularly for huge dinosaurs.