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FREE Essay on The Visual Perception of an Individual
 Janice Holden suggested that Mrs. Davey's failure to see her body while ostensibly 'up on the ceiling' may have merely been an instance of "incomplete visual perception" rather than hallucination (Holden, "Heaven" 37). However, she notably cited Margot Grey's discovery that some out-of-body NDErs could not see their physical bodies even when they explicitly to see them (which is difficult to reconcile with the assumption that OBEs involve genuine perception of the physical area where the body would be), and in my reply I noted that in the majority of Oliver Fox's induced OBEs, Fox reported being unable to find his physical body lying on the bed despite explicitly looking for it there. I also noted that out-of-body discrepancies involving clearly perceptions—such as Robert Crookall's report of an OBEr who saw bars on his bedroom window that didn't exist—cannot be explained by selective attention to detail or preoccupation with something other than the location of one's physical body.
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As already noted, though, one can believe that NDEs are not good evidence for survival or even that survival after death never happens without believing that "everything can be explained in purely material terms." David Chalmers, for instance, has recently defended a version of property dualism (in ) that denies that the mind can be explained in purely physical terms while also denying that the mind can exist independently of the brain (or some physical substrate); but the latter is a prerequisite for the sort of life after death Tart envisions.