There is moderate, extreme, and other forms of nationalism in India.
Fifty Orwell Essays - Project Gutenberg Australia
Students of indigenous populations face significant obstacles. Of the most formidable is the biased textual record the invaders left. Almost everything we know about sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Indians emanates from European chroniclers. Comparing multiple first-hand accounts in a comparative – i.e., French, English, Spanish, and Dutch writings – context can overcome some of the bias naturally built into one-sided perspectives. Archaeological evidence can provide some correctives. Perhaps most promising of all is ethnographic analyses of Indian behavior. Studying Indians up close in discrete contexts, what social historians have called “thick description,” provides more certainty and sure-footedness in interpreting scant evidence and overcoming the attitudes and paying close attention to local circumstances and conditions from their unique historical perspective. In other words, thick description means not just describing behavior, but analyzing behavior in its context in ways that can be understood today. It requires an ethnographic approach, the system of meanings encoded in material and spiritual culture. Historians like Karen Ordahl Kupperman provide a good example of ethnogenetic analysis. In a chapter on “reading Indian bodies, Kupperman looked at hair styles, posture, dress, tattoos, and other signifiers of “self-presentation.” The author has also used this same approach to pursue the ethnogenesis of American Indians broadly in sixteenth century North America.
Fifty Orwell Essays, by George Orwell, free ebook
One of the French mariners who had learned enough of the Algonquian language to communicate with them felt moved to tell the survivors that “God was angry with them for their wickedness, and would destroy them and give their country to another people.” A sachem spurned the prediction, assembled his tribe on a nearby hill, and challenged the French to prove that his God had such power over so many people. The Frenchman assured them that he “surely would.” Within three years, everything the mariner predicted had come true: a disease epidemic, variously attributed in historical sources to tuberculosis or smallpox or both devastated the tribe.