Fagan, Brian M. New York: Basic Books, 2000.

Just as precipitation before plants colonized land, denuded lands and , and transpiration no longer contributed to the hydrological cycle. Rampant deforestation contributed to flooded Mesopotamian rivers, and the region also became drier. The flood that survived, which , was probably related to deforestation, although a great deal of speculation exists regarding the origins of flood myths. The , where the rising interglacial global ocean flooded the lake to levels higher than during the glacial period. Another hypothesis has rising seas flooding the lower end of Mesopotamia. There are arguments that the legend of Atlantis related to a seashore civilization drowned under a rising interglacial ocean, but I think that an increasingly deforested Sumerian hinterland gave rise to the floods of legend.

Lamb, H. H. 2nd edition. New York and London: Routledge, 1995.

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The papers in are about this course.

Although many traits that led to human dominance of Earth can be discerned in our distant ancestors, a pile of baggage came along with them. All great ape societies but bonobos are male dominated, and the most marginal when his society is attacked. The traits almost always arose from economic costs and benefits, which were always rooted in energy. How , also called pygmy chimpanzees, became the only great ape species that is not male-dominated is primarily an economic tale.

Basic Writings is on the page.

Although our species, (named if we consider that Neanderthals and an are subspecies of but I will use in this essay to denote today’s humans), is the only survivor of the past several million years of human-line evolution, many of our cousins and ancestors were recognizably human. When did language begin, especially spoken language? Language certainly predated the appearance of . All great apes readily learn sign language, and even when monkeys chatter, the , and there is plenty of evidence that great ape vocalizations can . The and their corvid cousins can be hard to believe; they can solve some problems better than great apes can, and birds do not have a neocortex, but seems to function like the neocortex does. Becoming that began to . If fossils are sufficiently preserved, important anatomical features can provide key evidence for human abilities and behaviors. Turkana Boy, for instance, had his inner ear, which is responsible for balance, preserved well enough so that it provided more evidence that he did not spend time in trees (it is larger in primates that regularly climb). Similarly, the , which succeeded , apparently enabled keener hearing than its predecessors were capable of, and may have reflected the beginnings of spoken language. There is strong evidence that . As with many other human traits, the potential for language seems to have existed with monkeys (), and it kept developing more sophistication over vast stretches of time, and structural and cognitive changes interacted as human language developed into today’s version.

Basic Concepts . Translated by Gary Aylesworth, Bloomington, Indiana University Press, 1993.
The Concept of Time. Translated by William McNeill, Oxford, Blackwell, 1992.

As it reveals itself in beings, Being withdraws.

Newton invented his , but the science of energy did not develop until more than a century after the steam engine appeared. I have heard physicists question whether owed more to the steam engine than the converse. The so-called began their formulation with , which is actually the third of the four laws of thermodynamics and is the earliest enunciation of the concept of , and . A generation later, European scientists began taking his work further. The great works of , , and friends formed the foundation of today’s science of energy, and many basic terms of today’s energy science were named after the pioneers of energy technology and theory, including , , , , , , , , and .

A quarter of the first dialogue was published in 1959, in revised form in .

Here's what means, in "Overcoming Metaphysics".

Recognizably modern birds existed by the end-Cretaceous, and . Small pterosaurs called first flew about 150 mya, about the time that birds appeared. The skies were getting crowded by the late-Cretaceous, although birds and pterosaurs seem to . Modern birds survived the end-Cretaceous extinction partly because they found refugia in swampy margins, burrows, and holes in trees, such as those that woodpeckers can create.

In the introduction the translator relates the ontological difference to Appropriation/:

. Translated by Ted Sadler, London, Continuum, 2002.

Artists have been depicting Carboniferous swamps for more than a century, and the . That represents a key Carboniferous issue and perhaps why the period ended. That , and others like it, appeared in the fossil record about 300 mya, when oxygen levels were Earth’s highest ever, at somewhere between 25% and 35%. The almost universally accepted reason for that high oxygen level is that for the entire Carboniferous Period removed carbon dioxide from the atmosphere in vast amounts. Today, the estimate is that carbon dioxide fell from about 1,500 PPM at the beginning of the Carboniferous to 350 PPM by the end, which is lower than today’s value. That tandem effect of sequestering carbon and freeing oxygen not only may have led to huge arthropods and amphibians, but also intensified . The idea that high oxygen levels led to those giants was first proposed more than a century ago and dismissed, but has recently come back into favor. Flying insects have the highest metabolisms of all animals, but they do not have diaphragmatic lungs as mammals have, or air sac lungs as birds have, and although they may have some way of actively breathing by contracting their tracheas, it is not the bellows action of vertebrate lungs. The for early insect gigantism is that high oxygen, as well as a denser atmosphere (the nitrogen mass would not have fallen, so increased oxygen would have added to the atmosphere’s mass), would have enabled such leviathans to fly, and the other is that flying insects got a head start in the arms race and could grow large until predators that could catch them evolved. The late Permian had an even larger dragonfly, when oxygen levels had crashed back down. The evolution of flight is another area of great controversy, and insects accomplished it long before vertebrates did. The general idea is that flight structures evolved from those used for other purposes. For insects, wings appear to have evolved from aquatic “oars,” and gills became lungs. Reptiles did not develop flight until the Triassic, and .