Lamb, H. H. 2nd edition. New York and London: Routledge, 1995.
The papers in are about this course.
Although many traits that led to human dominance of Earth can be discerned in our distant ancestors, a pile of baggage came along with them. All great ape societies but bonobos are male dominated, and the most marginal when his society is attacked. The traits almost always arose from economic costs and benefits, which were always rooted in energy. How , also called pygmy chimpanzees, became the only great ape species that is not male-dominated is primarily an economic tale.
Basic Writings is on the page.
Although our species, (named if we consider that Neanderthals and an are subspecies of but I will use in this essay to denote today’s humans), is the only survivor of the past several million years of human-line evolution, many of our cousins and ancestors were recognizably human. When did language begin, especially spoken language? Language certainly predated the appearance of . All great apes readily learn sign language, and even when monkeys chatter, the , and there is plenty of evidence that great ape vocalizations can . The and their corvid cousins can be hard to believe; they can solve some problems better than great apes can, and birds do not have a neocortex, but seems to function like the neocortex does. Becoming that began to . If fossils are sufficiently preserved, important anatomical features can provide key evidence for human abilities and behaviors. Turkana Boy, for instance, had his inner ear, which is responsible for balance, preserved well enough so that it provided more evidence that he did not spend time in trees (it is larger in primates that regularly climb). Similarly, the , which succeeded , apparently enabled keener hearing than its predecessors were capable of, and may have reflected the beginnings of spoken language. There is strong evidence that . As with many other human traits, the potential for language seems to have existed with monkeys (), and it kept developing more sophistication over vast stretches of time, and structural and cognitive changes interacted as human language developed into today’s version.