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Shortening college essays - essayer vs tenter
Lard was the favored fat for use as shortening; tallow (the fat rendered from beef or mutton) was considered too firm and too pronounced in flavor. The earliest lard substitutes or adulterated lard products, made by mixing other animal fats or vegetable oils with lard, were called "refined lard," a term that emerged in trade circles in the 1870s. Since the latter term was considered somewhat deceptive, the term "compound lard" began to appear in the trade in the mid-1880s, and in 1888 the two largest producers of such products decided to start labeling them as "lard compounds." From 1906-1930 the official US government terms for these products were "lard compounds and substitutes." The "lard compounds" had to contain over 50% lard, while substitutes could contain less. After 1911, when hydrogenated all-vegetable-oil shortenings were introduced as new foods rather than lard substitutes, the terms "lard compound" and "compound" were dropped and replaced by proprietary names (such as Crisco), which were not suggestive of any animal product. Generically these new products were often called "vegetable compounds." The present term "shortening," used to refer to lard substitutes made largely or entirely from vegetable oils, started to become the standard in the early 1930s. In 1931 the US Department of Commerce's Census of Manufacturers first switched their category title from "Lard substitutes and cooking fats" to "Shortenings other than lard."
its flavor is still less bland than shortening or oil
There are various types of shortenings. Those made with only vegetable oils are produced in much greater amounts than those which are a blend of animal and vegetable fats. Most are made by blending 3-5% of a hard fat (typically palm or cottonseed oil fully hydrogenated to an iodine value of roughly 1-8) with a soy oil shortening base, consisting of soy oil hydrogenated to an iodine value of about 75 at roughly 220°C (425°F) and 10 pounds pressure (Erickson et al. 1980). This mixture is then pumped into a small closed system, where the fat is continuously solidified on externally refrigerated cylinders and scraped therefrom. The fluid fat is supercooled to 16-18°C and small crystals form. The supercooled fluid mixture is run into a second worker unit to continue the growth of the small crystals without cooling. The shortening is packed and allowed to temper at about 27°C (80°F) for 1-3 days to give the proper crystal structure (Wolf and Cowan 1975). All-hydrogenated type shortenings, in which the oil is more completely hydrogenated, are used largely in baked goods. Liquid shortenings have been developed more recently for ease of metering and reduced saturated fat content.