Writing Tips: Shortening Sentences - Proofread My Essay

The earliest records of the production of compounded cooking fats on a household scale in Europe date from the first half of the 19th century. They were probably produced at a much earlier date. There was even some commercial production in the mid-1900s, but the first large scale production of lard substitutes and shortenings developed in the United States. There are several reasons that these products never became very popular in Europe until after World War II: (1) Northern Europeans preferred lard; (2) Inexpensive margarine was widely available and came to be used in cooking in many of the ways Americans used shortenings; in Europe both table margarines and cooking or industrial margarines were developed; (3) As early as 1880 there was legal prosecution of lard compounds in England under the Sale of Foods Act. This may have discouraged further experimentation on the Continent as well; (4) Europe did not grow a lot of oilseeds, which were the raw material for shortening; (5) Europeans did not traditionally use lard or shortening in basic breads; Americans did. To help make up its deficit in food oils and fats, Europe started in about 1890 to use relatively saturated vegetable fats, as from coconut and palm oils, which had long been imported for use in the candle and soap industries, as a substitute for animal fats in foods. Europe also imported huge quantities of lard from America, just as in the period following World War II it began to import huge quantities of soybeans from America to process into oil and meal.

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27/08/2009 · How to format a shortened quote in an MLA essay

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Lard was the favored fat for use as shortening; tallow (the fat rendered from beef or mutton) was considered too firm and too pronounced in flavor. The earliest lard substitutes or adulterated lard products, made by mixing other animal fats or vegetable oils with lard, were called "refined lard," a term that emerged in trade circles in the 1870s. Since the latter term was considered somewhat deceptive, the term "compound lard" began to appear in the trade in the mid-1880s, and in 1888 the two largest producers of such products decided to start labeling them as "lard compounds." From 1906-1930 the official US government terms for these products were "lard compounds and substitutes." The "lard compounds" had to contain over 50% lard, while substitutes could contain less. After 1911, when hydrogenated all-vegetable-oil shortenings were introduced as new foods rather than lard substitutes, the terms "lard compound" and "compound" were dropped and replaced by proprietary names (such as Crisco), which were not suggestive of any animal product. Generically these new products were often called "vegetable compounds." The present term "shortening," used to refer to lard substitutes made largely or entirely from vegetable oils, started to become the standard in the early 1930s. In 1931 the US Department of Commerce's Census of Manufacturers first switched their category title from "Lard substitutes and cooking fats" to "Shortenings other than lard."

its flavor is still less bland than shortening or oil

There are various types of shortenings. Those made with only vegetable oils are produced in much greater amounts than those which are a blend of animal and vegetable fats. Most are made by blending 3-5% of a hard fat (typically palm or cottonseed oil fully hydrogenated to an iodine value of roughly 1-8) with a soy oil shortening base, consisting of soy oil hydrogenated to an iodine value of about 75 at roughly 220°C (425°F) and 10 pounds pressure (Erickson et al. 1980). This mixture is then pumped into a small closed system, where the fat is continuously solidified on externally refrigerated cylinders and scraped therefrom. The fluid fat is supercooled to 16-18°C and small crystals form. The supercooled fluid mixture is run into a second worker unit to continue the growth of the small crystals without cooling. The shortening is packed and allowed to temper at about 27°C (80°F) for 1-3 days to give the proper crystal structure (Wolf and Cowan 1975). All-hydrogenated type shortenings, in which the oil is more completely hydrogenated, are used largely in baked goods. Liquid shortenings have been developed more recently for ease of metering and reduced saturated fat content.

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Writing succinctly is a valuable skill in both business and education. In this post, we set out how to improve your written work by shortening sentences.

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Today the term "shortening" usually refers to a "vegetable shortening," a semisolid fatty food made entirely from refined edible vegetable oils, usually a blend of two or more partially hydrogenated oils. Shortenings are used in cooking and serve four basic functions: (1) to shorten baked goods (especially pastries, pie crusts, and breads) in order to make them tender and flaky. They do this by preventing the cohesion of wheat gluten strands during mixing, thus literally shortening them and making the gluten less elastic and sticky; (2) for frying, since they are hydrogenated to a lower iodine value and have a small percentage of unsaturated fatty acids, they are more resistant to oxidation and rancidification than typical vegetable oils; (3) to add flavor and richness to typical breads, and to extend their shelf life; and (4) for "creaming power" in making icings and fillings; when beaten, often with sugar, they incorporate large volumes of air bubbles and thus produce a fine, delicate structure. Lard does not cream well.

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A major difference between shortenings and margarines is that the former generally contain 100% fat, whereas margarines typically contain 20% milk or a similar aqueous phase. Lard, which lacks natural antioxidants, is much less stable and much more resistant to oxidation than an equally unsaturated shortening.

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