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Mr. Takato Honda, 2nd year in Ph.D. Program in Human Biology, published first author on a paper in Scientific Reports, the online journal of Nature Publishing Group.
Elucidation of neuronal network underlying memory is an important issue of current behavioral neuroscience. The authors successfully induced artificial olfactory memory in living animals, fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) larvae, by targeted activation of memory circuits involved in memory formation. They utilized cutting edge techniques in fly neurogenetics, and substituted the reward signals with dTrpA1-mediated thermogenetic activation of octopaminergic neurons and the odor signals by ChR2-mediated optical activation of a specific class of olfactory neurons. They showed that targeted activation of only the two sets of neurons is indeed sufficient for the formation of associative olfactory memory in the larval brain. These results reveal the minimum elementary circuitry that mediates the induction of distinctive olfactory associative memory in the larval brain.
Given its simplicity and robustness, this method is expected to further our knowledge on neurocircuitry mechanisms of memory at high resolution. This work was published in Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing Group) in April 25th, 2014.
The Scientific Method - Sample Essays - New York essay
European politics, philosophy, science and communications were radically reoriented during the course of the “long 18th century” (1685-1815) as part of a movement referred to by its participants as the Age of Reason, or simply the Enlightenment. Enlightenment thinkers in Britain, in France and throughout Europe questioned traditional authority and embraced the notion that humanity could be improved through rational change. The Enlightenment produced numerous books, essays, inventions, scientific discoveries, laws, wars and revolutions. The American and French Revolutions were directly inspired by Enlightenment ideals and respectively marked the peak of its influence and the beginning of its decline. The Enlightenment ultimately gave way to 19th-century Romanticism.