An Essay on the Science and Civilization

This essay has presented Earth’s many changing faces during its journey. Earth had molten beginnings, was , and may have . Later, and and . Earth experienced swings from to conditions as atmospheric gases dramatically changed, continents moved, and vast and of complex life played out on land and sea. But the changes happened over timescales of millions and billions of years, not hundreds. No climate scientist will deny that carbon dioxide traps infrared radiation and warms Earth’s atmosphere. The vented enough carbon dioxide into the atmosphere to create 200 million years of Greenhouse Earth conditions, when reptiles ruled Earth. Volcanism waned and around 150-to-100 mya. By 35 mya, and the Antarctic ice sheet began forming. Every paleoclimate study I have seen places greenhouse gas (and primarily carbon dioxide) concentrations as the primary determinant of global surface temperatures, after the Sun's radiation, but the Sun's output is considered to have been exceptionally stable and has risen slowly over the eons. , usually by accentuating the carbon dioxide with a positive feedback effect that may have reached runaway conditions at times.

12/04/2014 · Science and civilization go hand in hand

Essay about Science and Civilization - 3420 Words

Civilization Essay -- science - 123HelpMe

After newly exposed forest soils have produced a few crops, the yield will decline due to nutrient depletion. When the croplands receive less precipitation, yields drop. When soils wash away due to erosion, crop yields in those eroded soils will decline. Those effects reduce the EROI and surplus energy of farming those lands. When cropland is abandoned due to aridity, nutrient depletion, and erosion, and lands farther from Rome were conquered, deforested, and farmed, it took more energy to transport those crops to Rome than with farms closer to Rome. That also depressed the EROI and surplus energy. When harbors silted up and needed dredging, or were eventually abandoned and a port was built farther away, that also reduced the EROI and surplus energy of Rome-bound food. When food was used to feed soldiers who traveled increasingly vast distances to conquer and plunder peoples and their lands, those would be lower-EROI ventures than conquests closer to Rome. That dynamic has also been called in academic parlance, but in scientific terms, it is really just sucking the dregs of low-EROI resources after high-EROI energy sources have been depleted. Rome’s decline was really just another resource-depletion dynamic. Humanity’s first one was , and Rome only experienced what , , , , and numerous other early civilizations already suffered. Rome just did it on an unprecedented scale.

Science and Civilization - An Essay | Trees | Evil

Energy is the master resource of all organisms, all ecosystems, and all economies. When a civilization centralizes its energy consumption, which were food and wood in preindustrial civilizations, to a central city, and it has to keep expanding farther and farther from that city to obtain that energy, the is going to reduce the EROI of those increasingly distant energy resources, and hence reduce the . Also, the practices of and agriculture provide short-term agricultural yields, but the wood would be almost instantly used (about 90% of the wood imported to Rome was burned, which was the typical ratio for ancient cities). The soils became eroded, depleted, and often abandoned as the land could no longer support farming, partly because the entire process made the land more arid. If they could import water to irrigate (usually a rare situation), that could help ameliorate the process, but it took more time and effort and made it more difficult. There were no accountants, scientists, or engineers monitoring and measuring the process, but all of those dynamics would reduce the system’s EROI and surplus energy and make it less resilient, so it was vulnerable to disruptive shocks.

Science and civilization; essays. (Book, 1970) …
Get this from a library! Science and civilization; essays.. [Francis Sydney Marvin]

Essay on the relation between Science and Culture

In the tables above, some dates have ranges as such old dates often have relatively thin evidence supporting them, which can be interpreted in different ways. Those dates will be adjusted as the scientific evidence and theories develop. As I was writing this essay, a study was published that may have pushed back . Moving dates can change some theories of causation, but few scientists will dispute the idea that Earth’s atmosphere was primarily oxygenated by . It is the only plausible mechanism for that oxygenation event Earth’s continuing high atmospheric oxygen content.

Impact of Science and Technology on the Development of Modern Civilization

Essay on Science and Technology in India

The derision was loud from Wrangham’s colleagues…until evidence of was found at in South Africa by using new tools and techniques. The chortling is subsiding somewhat and scientists are now looking for the faint evidence, and long-disputed evidence of 1.5-1.7 mya controlled fires is being reconsidered, although his hypothesis is still widely considered as being only "mildly compelling" at best. New tools may push back the control of fire to a time that matches Wrangham’s audacious hypothesis. Wrangham cited the Expensive-Tissue Hypothesis as partially supporting the Cooking Hypothesis, but , the energy to power the human brain may not have solely derived from cooked food’s energy benefits. Wrangham has cited numerous lines of evidence, one of which is a that has to find honeybee hives and smoke them out; the humans get the honey and the honeyguide gets the larvae and wax. According to recent molecular evidence, the evolutionary split of the honeyguide from its ancestors happened up to three mya, which supports the early-control-of-fire hypothesis. There is great controversy regarding these subjects, from recent findings that to scientists making arguments that to the social impacts of campfires. This section of this essay will probably be one of the first to be revised in future versions, as new evidence is adduced and new hypotheses are proposed.

Science and the New Civilization (Essay index reprint series) [Robert A

Science and civilization essay by Kendra Sample - issuu

There is fierce disagreement amongst mainstream scientists – a disagreement that also divides alternative researchers – around what happened to the Earth, and to humanity, in the closing millennia of the last Ice Age between 12,800 and 11,600 years ago. Marked by intense cold, global floods and extinctions of animal species, this 1200-year interval is known to geologists as the Younger Dryas. Many of the leading investigators are convinced the agent of the mysterious earth changes, and of the extinctions, was a comet that the struck the North American ice cap with globally cataclysmic effects. But their “Younger Dryas Impact Hypothesis” is still regarded as controversial by others who have sought, more than once in the scientific literature, to declare it “disproved” only to be confronted by compelling new evidence that further strengthens the case. In this article, Graham Hancock shows how scientists consistently suppress and marginalise new knowledge that conflicts with established positions and argues that a paradigm shift is underway – a shift that will require us to reconsider everything we’ve been taught about the peopling of the Americas and about the very origins of civilization.