Roads to extinction essays on the holocaust - …

The Cenozoic equivalent of a bolide impact was the arrival of humans, as glyptodonts shortly after human arrival. The largest endemic South American animals to survive the of three mya, when North American placentals prevailed over South American marsupials, and the arrival of humans to the Western Hemisphere beginning less than 15 kya, are the and , which are tiny compared to their ancient South American brethren. The giant anteater is classified as a sloth, and sloths were a particularly South American animal. The were bigger than , which are Earth’s largest land animals today. After car-sized glyptodonts went extinct, dog-sized became the line’s largest remaining representative.

Roads To Extinction Essays On The Holocaust | Desi Akhbar

Roads to extinction essays on the holocaust

What I learned from Elie Wiesel - The HyperTexts

As impressive as the capabilities and survival history of the global megafauna were, what seems far more difficult to explain away are the humans that arrived when the global megafauna went suddenly extinct. The only megafauna of note to survive were those that had lived with humans in Africa and Eurasia for more than a million years and learned to avoid them, as almost all game animals do today.

History of the Yellow Star - ThoughtCo

In the Western Hemisphere, Africa, and Eurasia, the five-to-seven metric ton herbivores and the predators that hunted them became , but in marsupial-dominated Australia they were a little smaller, and the largest marsupial ever, , reached “only” about three metric tons. Australian animals enjoyed about , and large herbivore/predator guilds thrived there as they did elsewhere. After appearing about 1.6 mya, quickly went extinct about 46 kya, and their bones have been . The next largest denizen of did. Megafauna are variously defined as animals weighing at least 45 or 100 kilograms, which is about as massive as humans. About 90% of Australia’s megafauna went extinct soon after humans arrived. , a , a , and so on. A number had , to go extinct shortly after humans arrived. The is horrifically impressive. I have yet to see a disinterested scientist or academic deny the idea that humans were primarily responsible, and almost certainly responsible, for Australian megafauna extinctions. When a “referee” , which assessed the state of the debate, the authors attributed Australian megafauna extinctions entirely to humans. There is evidence that those early Australians engaged in setting great fires. On Borneo, about the same time that humans first invaded Australia, near , humans also burned the forests with abandon, as they probably tried to transform the rainforest environment into something friendlier to humans.

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Structuralism – Literary Theory and Criticism Notes

Only when economic surpluses (primarily food) were redistributed, first by chiefs and then by early states, did men rise to dominance in those agricultural civilizations. Because the rise of civilization in the Fertile Crescent is the best studied and had the greatest influence on humanity, this chapter will tend to focus on it, although it will also survey similarities and differences with other regions where agriculture and civilization first appeared. Whenever agriculture appeared, cities nearly always eventually appeared, usually a few thousand years later. Agriculture’s chief virtue was that it extracted vast amounts of human-digestible energy from the land, and population densities hundreds of times greater than that of hunter-gatherers became feasible. The , but today it is widely thought that population pressures led to agriculture's appearance. The attractions of agricultural life over the hunter-gatherer lifestyle were not immediately evident, at least after the first easy phase, when intact forests and soils were there for the plundering. On the advancing front of agricultural expansion, life was easy, but as forests and soils were depleted, population pressures led to disease, "pests" learned to consume that human-raised food, and agricultural life became a life of drudgery compared to the hunter-gatherer or horticultural lifestyle. Sanitation issues, disease, and environmental decline plagued early settlements, and not long after they transitioned from hunter-gatherers to farmers, but the land could also support many times the people. Another aspect of biology that applies to human civilization is the idea of . Over history, the society with the higher carrying capacity prevailed, and the loser either adopted the winner’s practices or became enslaved, taxed, marginalized, or extinct. On the eve of the Domestication Revolution, Earth’s carrying capacity with the hunter-gatherer lifestyle was around 10 million people, and the actual population was somewhat less, maybe . On the eve of the Industrial Revolution in 1800, Earth’s population was , and again was considered to be about half of Earth's carrying capacity under that energy regime. No matter how talented a hunter-gatherer warrior was, he was no match for two hundred peasants armed with hoes.

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Austercized From The West… and Cause They ..

As will become a familiar theme in this essay, the rise and fall of species and ecosystems is always primarily an energy issue. The Ediacaran extinction is a good example: Ediacaran fauna either an energy source for early Cambrian predators, ran out of food energy, ran out of the oxygen necessary to power their metabolisms, or lacked some other energy-delivered nutrient. After the extinction events, biomes were often cleared for new species to dominate, which were often descended from species that were marginal ecosystem members before the extinction event. They then enjoyed a of relative energy abundance as their competitors were removed via the extinction event.


Mongols | The West’s Darkest Hour

Here is a brief summary of this essay. Ever since more than three billion years ago and about a billion years after the Sun and Earth formed, organisms have continually invented more effective methods to acquire, preserve, and use energy. after three billion years of evolution and, pound-for-pound, it used energy . The story of life on Earth has been one of , and in turn influencing them. During the eon of complex life that began more than 500 million years ago, there have been many brief for some fortunate species, soon followed by increased energy competition, a relatively stable struggle for energy, and then cleared biomes and set the stage for another golden age by organisms adapted to the new environments. Those newly dominant organisms were often marginal or unremarkable members of their ecosystems before the mass extinction. That pattern has characterized the journey of complex life over the past several hundred million years. among some animals, which provided them with a competitive advantage.