Culture of America During the 1920s Essay ..

Sociological studies (e.g., Ecklundt 2010) have probed the religiousbeliefs of scientists, particularly in the United States. Theyindicate a significant difference in religiosity in scientistscompared to the general population. Surveys such as those conducted bythe Pew forum (Masci and Smith 2016) find that nearly nine in tenadults in the US say they believe in God or a universal spirit, anumber that has only slightly declined in recent decades. Amongyounger adults, the percentage of theists is about 80%. Atheism andagnosticism are widespread among academics, especially among thoseworking in elite institutions. A survey among National Academy ofSciences members (all senior academics, overwhelmingly from elitefaculties) found that the majority disbelieved in God’sexistence (72.2%), with 20.8% being agnostic, and only 7% theists(Larson and Witham 1998). Ecklund and Scheitle (2007) analyzed responsesfrom scientists (working in the social and natural sciences) from 21elite universities in the US. About 31.2% of their participantsself-identified as atheists and a further 31 % as agnostics. Theremaining number believed in a higher power (7%), sometimes believedin God (5.4%), believed in God with some doubts (15.5%), or believedin God without any doubts (9.7%). In contrast to the generalpopulation, the older scientists in this sample did not show higherreligiosity—in fact, they were more likely to say that they didnot believe in God. On the other hand, Gross and Simmons (2009)examined a more heterogeneous sample of scientists from Americancolleges, including community colleges, elite doctoral-grantinginstitutions, non-elite four-year state schools, and small liberalarts colleges. They found that the majority of university professors(full-time tenured or tenure-track faculty) had some theistic beliefs,believing either in God (34.9%), in God with some doubts (16.6%), inGod some of the time (4.3%), or in a higher power (19.2%). Belief inGod was influenced both by type of institution (lower theistic beliefin more prestigious schools) and by discipline (lower theistic beliefin the physical and biological sciences compared to the socialsciences and humanities).

Was American Society Intolerant in the 1920's

Discrimination in Canada in the 1920s Essay Example …

Discrimination in Canada in the 1920s Essay

Frederick Lewis Allen’s popular work of history leaves the reader with the impression that the post-war 1920s is the original source of almost every fact and phenomena of contemporary America.

Religion and Science (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

From the 1920s onward, the scientific study of religion became lessconcerned with grand unifying narratives, and focused more onparticular religious traditions and beliefs. Anthropologists, such asEdward Evans-Pritchard (1937/1965) and Bronislaw Malinowski(1925/1992) no longer relied exclusively on second-hand reports(usually of poor quality and from distorted sources), but engaged inserious fieldwork. Their ethnographies indicated that culturalevolutionism was mistaken and that religious beliefs were more diversethan was previously assumed. They argued that religious beliefs werenot the result of ignorance of naturalistic mechanisms; for instance,Evans-Pritchard noted that the Azande were well aware that housescould collapse because termites ate away at their foundations, butthey still appealed to witchcraft to explain why a particular househad collapsed. More recently, Cristine Legare et al. (2012) found thatpeople in various cultures straightforwardly combine supernatural andnatural explanations, for instance, South Africans are aware AIDS iscaused by a virus, but some also believe that the viral infection isultimately caused by a witch.

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In the contemporary public sphere, the most prominent interactionbetween science and religion concerns evolutionary theory andcreationism/Intelligent Design. The legal battles (e.g., theKitzmiller versus Dover trial in 2005) and lobbying surrounding theteaching of evolution and creationism in American schools suggest thatreligion and science conflict. However, even if one were to focus onthe reception of evolutionary theory, the relationship betweenreligion and science is complex. For instance, in the United Kingdom,scientists, clergy, and popular writers, sought to reconcile scienceand religion during the nineteenth and early twentieth century, whereas the United States saw the rise of a fundamentalistopposition to evolutionary thinking, exemplified by the Scopes trialin 1925 (Bowler 2001, 2009).

prohibition essay, Roaring 20s Essay

The 1920s saw a “revolution in manners and morals,” according to Allen. He cited five causes. First, the disruption and “disillusion” of the first world war with its introduction of Americans to internationalism called into question traditional American habits and ways of thinking.

Science & Religion 1920s by Gabrielle Saunders on Prezi

J.N. Darby became an instrumental leader in the movement which became known as the "Plymouth Brethren." This independent religious group was outside of the mainline institutional churches of that day, and they charged the external organized churches as being equivalent to "the world system" of Satan, caricaturing them as "Christendom." Other British Dispensationalists include C.H. Mackintosh, William Kelly and E.W. Bullinger. Darby made at least eight visits to America to promulgate his new interpretations, and they were espoused by such American leaders as Dwight L. Moody (1837-1899) and J.H. Brookes (1830-1897). Other prominent names associated with Dispensational theology in the twentieth century include W.E. Blackstone, L.S. Chafer who founded Dallas Theological Seminary, and C.I. Scofield who popularized Dispensational theology with his explanatory notes in Dispensational theology became entrenched in the "Fundamentalist" movement of the 1920s and 1930s. More recent Dispensational writers include John E. Walvoord, Hal Lindsey who authored the popular and Charles Ryrie who like Scofield has added explanatory notes in his