…cite experts who agree with you

Analogical reasoning goes well beyond the three roles alreadyidentified (heuristic, justificatory and programmatic). Forexample, analogies are often pedagogically useful. In general,analogical cognition, which embraces all cognitive processesinvolved in discovering, constructing and using analogies, is muchbroader than analogical reasoning (Hofstadter 2001). Understanding these processes is an important objective of currentcognitive science research, and an objective that generates manyexcellent questions. How do humans identify analogies? Dononhuman animals use analogies and analogical reasoning in ways similarto humans? How do analogies and metaphors influence conceptformation?

…claim to be an expert if you’re not one

…use weak qualifiers like “I believe,” “I feel,” or “I think”—just tell us!

…provide facts, evidence, and statistics to support your position

To embrace a purely formal approach to analogy and to abjureformalization entirely are two extremes in a spectrum ofstrategies. There are intermediate positions. Most recentanalyses (both philosophical and computational) have been directedtowards elucidating general criteria and procedures, rather than formalrules, for reasoning by analogy. So long as these are notintended to provide a universal ‘logic’ of analogy, thereis room for such criteria even if one accepts Norton's basicpoint. The next section discusses some of these criteria andprocedures.

…use strictly moral or religious claims as support for your argument

If analogical reasoning is required to conform only to a simpleformal schema, the restriction is too permissive. Inferences areauthorized that clearly should not pass muster… The naturalresponse has been to develop more elaborate formaltemplates… The familiar difficulty is that theseembellished schema never seem to be quite embellished enough; therealways seems to be some part of the analysis that must be handledintuitively without guidance from strict formal rules. (2012: 1)

…provide reasons to support your claim

oopen-mindedness regarding divergent world views

Hesse (1966) offers a sharpened version of Aristotle's theory,specifically focused on analogical arguments in the sciences. Sheformulates three requirements that an analogical argument must satisfyin order to be acceptable:

oflexibility in considering alternatives and opinions

Most theories of analogy agree with Aristotle and Hume on thisgeneral point. Disagreement relates to the appropriate way ofmeasuring overall similarity. Some theories assign greatestweight to material analogy, which refers to shared, andtypically observable, features. Others give prominence toformal analogy, emphasizing high-level structuralcorrespondence. The next two sub-sections discuss representativeaccounts that illustrate these two approaches.

ounderstanding of the opinions of other people

Wherever you depart, in the least, from the similarity of the cases,you diminish proportionably the evidence; and may at last bring it to avery weak analogy, which is confessedly liable to error anduncertainty. (1779/1947: 144)

…assume the audience will agree with you about any aspect of your argument

oSelling an idea is like selling cars, you say whatever works.

- Research papers on Pluralism discuss the idea of that argues there should be multiple influences or sources of authority to ensure one group or entity does not become overly powerful.

Someone who tends to think critically would probably agree with statements like the following.

oconcern to become and remain well-informed

Effective paragraphs are important in all types of writing. Your paragraphs guide your reader through the paper by helping to explain, substantiate, and support your thesis statement or argument. Each paragraph should discuss one major point or idea. An effective paragraph has three parts: claim, evidence, and analysis.

oI hate talk shows where people shout their opinions but never give any reasons at all.

otrust in the processes of reasoned inquiry

For Hesse, an acceptable analogical argument must include“observable similarities” between domains, which she refersto as material analogy. Material analogy is contrastedwith formal analogy. Two domains are formally analogousif both are “interpretations of the same formal theory”(1966: 68). Nomic isomorphism (see ) is aspecial case where what is involved is a physical theory: heatand fluid flow exhibit formal analogy because the relevant physicallaws have a common mathematical form. A second example is theanalogy between the flow of electric current in a wire and fluid in apipe. Ohm's law