Part 1: Math Methodology: Instruction

All teachers should consider the role of active or constructivist learning, as opposed to using only a lecture method. Active student involvement reinforces learning. This is not to minimize the role of direct instruction, however. Per Robert Coe, Cesare Aloisi, Steve Higgins, and Lee Elliot Major (2014, "...if you want students to remember something you have to get them to think about it. This might be achieved by being ‘active’ or ‘passive’ " (p. 24).

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The Instruction Essay (Page 1 of 3) on this page contains the following subsections:

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Ball, D. L., Ferrini-Mundy, J., Kilpatrick, J., Milgram, R. J., Schmid, W., & Schaar, R. (2005). Reaching for common ground in K-12 mathematics education. Retrieved from

Positive attitudes and perceptions about learning

: is a blog by Dave Marain, a math educator with considerable experience. He said, "Look for fully developed math investigations that are more than one inch deep, math challenges, Problems of the Day and standardized test practice. The emphasis will always be on developing conceptual understanding in mathematics. There will also be dialogue on issues in mathematics education with a focus on standards, assessment, and pedagogy primarily at the 7-12 level through AP Calculus."

addresses the needs of students with math difficulties and contains the following subsections:
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In keeping with Percy Bridgman’s view that

Statistical arguments are often used to deal with questions about theinfluence of epistemically relevant causal factors. For example, whenit is known that similar data can be produced by factors that havenothing to do with the phenomenon of interest, Monte Carlosimulations, regression analyses of sample data, and a variety ofother statistical techniques sometimes provide investigators withtheir best chance of deciding how seriously to take a putativelyilluminating feature of their data.

Part Two of “Teaching Culture and Methods to Novice/Non-Anthropologists”

Learn more about math pedagogy from math educators around the world.

What are components of effective classroom management? Marzano, Marzano, and Pickering (2003) conducted a meta-analysis of 100 reports on this issue, addressing four general components of effective classroom management: rules and procedures, disciplinary interventions, teacher-student relationships, and mental set. This latter refers to an ability to remain emotionally objective and businesslike and "to identify and quickly act on potential behavioral problems" (p. 75). They found "on the average, students in classes where effective management techniques are employed have achievement scores that are 20 percentile points higher than students in classes where effective management techniques are not employed" (p. 10).

Source: Costa, A. L., & Kallick, B. (n.d.). Describing 16 habits of mind. Retrieved from

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Caution: Readers should also be aware that although determining learning styles might have great appeal, "The bottom line is that there is no consistent evidence that matching instruction to students' learning styles improves concentration, memory, self-confidence, grades, or reduces anxiety," according to Dembo and Howard (2007, p. 106). Rather, Dembo and Howard indicated, "The best practices approach to instruction can help students become more successful learners" (p. 107). Such instruction incorporates "Educational research [that] supports the teaching of learning strategies...; systematically designed instruction that contains scaffolding features...; and tailoring instruction for different levels of prior knowledge" (p. 107). Cognitive scientists Pashler, McDaniel, Rohrer, and Bjork (2009) supported this position and stated, "Although the literature on learning styles is enormous, very few studies have even used an experimental methodology capable of testing the validity of learning styles applied to education. Moreover, of those that did use an appropriate method, several found results that flatly contradict the popular meshing hypothesis" (p. 105). They concluded "at present, there is no adequate evidence base to justify incorporating learning-styles assessments into general educational practice" (p. 105) and "widespread use of learning-style measures in educational settings is unwise and a wasteful use of limited resources. ... If classification of students' learning styles has practical utility, it remains to be demonstrated" (p. 117). This position is further confirmed by Willingham, Hughes, and Dobolyi (2015) who concluded in their scientific investigation into the status of learning theories: "Learning styles theories have not panned out, and it is our
responsibility to ensure that students know that" (p. 269).