You see everything in black and white!

The idea that charitable systems, free of coercion or government, may benefit the poor better than the Welfare State, although still incomprehensible to the Left, is born out by history.

All ethical goods are autonomously defined by selves (i.e.

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Self-love, therefore, is no part of morality.

His assertion that, "every rational being exists as an end in himself and not merely as a means to be arbitrarily used by this or that will" [Beck, p.46] -- jedes vernünftige Wesen als Zweck an sich selbst, zum beliebigen Gebrauche fur diesen order jenen Willen" [p.428] -- is, I think, true; and it adds another feature, the concepts of means and ends, to the idea of a rational being.

Indeed it is exactly its counterpart.

Furthermore, if there are goods-in-themselves entirely beyond even rational and sentient beings, which are owed their own forms of respect, we may see how Kant beginning his inquiry merely with can have been a .

[2:15] They show that the work of the law [ ; Sanskrit , ] is written [] in their hearts [ ]., , §6

That makes the "end" a good-in-itself.

Straw man. This is the fallacy of refutinga caricatured or extreme version of somebody's argument, rather than theactual argument they've made. Often this fallacy involves putting wordsinto somebody's mouth by saying they've made arguments they haven't actuallymade, in which case the straw man argument is a veiled version of . One example of a straw man argument would be to say,"Mr. Jones thinks that capitalism is good because everybody earns whateverwealth they have, but this is clearly false because many people just inherittheir fortunes," when in fact Mr. Jones had not made the "earnings" argumentand had instead argued, say, that capitalism gives most people an incentiveto work and save. The fact that some arguments made for a policy are wrongdoes not imply that the policy itself is wrong.

That complements the version of moral duty given above.

Since children for some time really are incompetent and helpless, it is a good question to what extent the parental relationship is a contractual duty of commission or a non-contractual one: but if there is no to bring children into existence (which does not seem right outside of moralistic religious systems), then the act by the parents must be either supererogatory or in the parents' self-interest.

He acted.Michael Valentine Smith, , by  [1961, A Berkley Medallion Book, 1968, 1973, p.69]

This is an extraordinary and absurd proposition.

A mosquito is very low on the scale even of sentient beings, and thus has a life that is respected by virtually no human beings (apart from the Jains in India, who accord equal dignity and rights even to the smallest insects and bacteria -- although their passion for cleanliness does involve killing a lot of mold, fungus, and bacteria).

Ethical goods thus fall into two categories: goods for the self and goods for others.

(if there even is such a thing).

Let each one be as happy as heaven wills, or as he can make himself; I will not take anything from him to even envy him: but to his welfare or to his assistance in time of need I have no desire to contribute..." Now although it is possible that a universal law of nature according to that maxim could exist, it is nevertheless impossible to will that such a principle should hold everywhere as a law of nature.

people know what they like), except in relation to morality, which contains absolute ethical goods.

Moral autonomy combines will and reason.

From the 1920s onward, the scientific study of religion became lessconcerned with grand unifying narratives, and focused more onparticular religious traditions and beliefs. Anthropologists, such asEdward Evans-Pritchard (1937/1965) and Bronislaw Malinowski(1925/1992) no longer relied exclusively on second-hand reports(usually of poor quality and from distorted sources), but engaged inserious fieldwork. Their ethnographies indicated that culturalevolutionism was mistaken and that religious beliefs were more diversethan was previously assumed. They argued that religious beliefs werenot the result of ignorance of naturalistic mechanisms; for instance,Evans-Pritchard noted that the Azande were well aware that housescould collapse because termites ate away at their foundations, butthey still appealed to witchcraft to explain why a particular househad collapsed. More recently, Cristine Legare et al. (2012) found thatpeople in various cultures straightforwardly combine supernatural andnatural explanations, for instance, South Africans are aware AIDS iscaused by a virus, but some also believe that the viral infection isultimately caused by a witch.