Interprofessional Education - Do My Essay

We need to find not only time and space, but also academically acceptable mechanisms for measuring the effectiveness of IPE activities. Changing existing attitudes (which are frequently influenced by stereotypes) of students, faculty and administration in order to make IPE effective is both a challenge and an opportunity. To promote interprofessional education, and to measure its effectiveness, we must ensure that students' attitudes towards such work are clearly assessed - on entry to their professional program of study, on completion of their practice education (their clinical/fieldwork experiences), on finishing their professional education and, finally, once they are practising (the last being the most difficult).

panel on interprofessional education (IPEC) included

Keywords: Interprofessional Education, Reflective Practice, Reflective Learning, Model


Particular needs include shared responsibility for management; shared space and equipment for curriculum; innovations in assessment and evaluation tools; and the presence of educators from each profession represented in an interprofessional course, (e.g., HIV/AIDS).

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In attempting to move this agenda forward, we need to articulate some complex questions:Why do people collaborate in interprofessional teams? What makes such collaboration successful? What makes an effective collaborator in an interprofessional team? What drives the collaborative partnership in interprofessional teams? Some answers to these questions are beginning to emerge, through the work of Borrill et al. (2002) and of the National Expert Committee on Interprofessional Education for Collaborative, Patient- Centred Practice (Health Canada et al. 2004).

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At the University of British Columbia we have calculated that approximately 40% of the time of students in health and human service programs is spent away from the main campus, in a wide variety of community settings (where "community" covers the entire range of service provisions).Many large acute care settings can serve as a practice education site for hundreds of students at any time. The opportunities to provide interprofessional learning untrammeled by course scheduling are beginning to be appreciated and maximized.

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The goal of the proposed project is to clarify constructs of interprofessional teamwork in low-acuity inpatient and outpatient clinical settings and to develop a tool for the assessment of the teamwork skills of individual team members. With the growing emphasis on interprofessional approaches to health care, medical, nursing, pharmacy, and allied health professionals need to become proficient in teamwork. Since competency based assessment is becoming the norm in health care education, there is a clear need for a robust tool to assess the teamwork skills of individual team members. There is a paucity of teamwork assessment tools that have been validated for health care professionals, and existing tools all focus on teamwork as it occurs in high-acuity settings, such as operating rooms, emergency departments and intensive care units. Teams in lower-acuity inpatient settings and outpatient settings have different membership, tasks, and processes, and tools developed for the high-acuity settings are unlikely to translate well.

We propose the development of a valid assessment tool for interprofessional teamwork skills that is relevant for all team members. Our project has three specific aims: (1) to specify and define constructs for effective teamwork, focusing on the skills required of individual team members to achieve effective teamwork; (2) to develop a teamwork skills assessment tool and establish content validity; and (3) to establish the validity and psychometric properties of the tool.

The project's primary methods include a qualitative approach with direct observations, focus groups, and interviews to define teamwork constructs and skills (Specific Aim 1). For this purpose, we have chosen two model interprofessional teams with members from a variety of professions: an inpatient pediatric team and an outpatient women's HIV clinic team. These teams are well established at our institution and meet on a regular basis, allowing for direct observation of teamwork skills. Based on the analysis of the qualitative data, we will develop a draft tool for review by an expert panel (Specific Aim 2). The panel will rate the relevance of each item on the draft tool and we will calculate the content validity index (CVI) and symmetric confidence interval (ACI) for each item. Next, we will pilot test the developed assessment tool to establish validity of the instrument (Specific Aim 3). We will use the tool to assess teamwork skills of undergraduate learners who participate in an existing simulated clinical exercise designed to emulate interprofessional teamwork. Teams of health careprofessionals will be invited to go through the same exercise using the tool to assess teamwork skills. We will look for four sources of validity evidence: response process, internal structure, relationship to other variables, and consequences. To this end, we will utilize a variety of statistical analyses, including confirmatory factor analysis, a Generalizability study (G-study) to measure the variance, a Decision study (D-study) to determine the appropriate conditions under which to administer the assessment, and known-group comparisons to obtain evidence that the scores represent the different skill levels in the developmental continuum.

The proposed project will advance our understanding of behavioral assessment in general, and in particular as it pertains to interprofessional teamwork. In addition, it will provide the health care professions with a valid tool for assessment of teamwork skills.

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Interprofessional collaboration is also explored in the report of the National Expert Committee on Interprofessional Education for Collaborative, Patient- Centred Practice (Health Canada et al. 2004) and reinforced in the Health Council of Canada's first report, (HCC 2005). As the latter points out, "healthcare delivery models of the future clearly envision teams of healthcare providers working together to meet patient needs" (HCC 2005: 38).

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Interprofessional education is not easy to implement for a number of reasons: differences in prerequisites for admission to professional programs; the length of professional education; the extent and nature of the utilization of community and hospital resources for practice (clinical) education; students' freedom, or lack thereof, in the selection of professional courses; time-tabling differences and conflicts across professional programs; faculty teaching loads; research interests of faculty; methods of administration within the various programs; and the powers vested in Deans of Faculties through statutory legislation, for example, through the power to appoint faculty members and to develop curricula (Gilbert 2005).

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Fortunately, significant work is happening on the research, management and policy fronts. Researchers have worked hard to bring together data on effective teamwork in healthcare and to extract key messages for management and policy. This includes teams here in Canada (Lemieux-Charles and McGuire 2006) and abroad (Baker et al. 2005a). System managers and policy makers are also making significant attempts to transform healthcare workplaces into effective team-based environments. This includes efforts on the national level, such as the great strides made by the 2004 Health Canada Initiative on Interprofessional Education for Collaborative Patient-Centred Practice (IECPCP), which developed an evolving framework to help accomplish the task; as well as the Enhancing Interdisciplinary Collaboration in Primary Healthcare Initiative, funded by Health Canada's Primary Healthcare Transition Fund. In addition, a major contribution has come from the health human resource sector studies funded by the federal government.