a. Supporting evidence for the first idea:
c. Supporting evidence for the first idea:
Tisquantum soon became a key figure in the trade alliance and an integral member of the Plymouth Colony, translating and negotiating between Plymouth’s governors, including William Bradford, and tribal leaders like Massasoit. He made peace with the Nauset and with a number of other Indian leaders in the Wampanoag Confederation. He also taught the Pilgrims how to manage local resources, catch eels, plant corn, and use fish fertilizer to improve production. Without Tisquantum, the Plymouth Colony may not have survived. The same might be said of Pacquiquineo, an Algonquian creole who figured most prominently in the English settlement of Jamestown.
a. Supporting evidence for second main idea:
In 1570, Spanish Jesuits returned to Chesapeake Bay, with Paquiquineo as an interpreter and guide to establish the Ajacán mission in Virginia to convert the Indians to Christianity. The Jesuit priest Father Juan Rogel headed the Virginia mission and another priest, Father Juan Baptista de Segura, reported to him from the field. Both had worked to establish missions at St. Augustine and Santa Elena. The group also included Father Luis de Quiros, and six lay brothers (Gabriel Gomes, Sancho Cevallos, Juan Baptista Mendez, Pedro de Linares, Gabriel de Solis, and Christobal Redondo). They took with them Paquiquineo and Alonzo de Olmos, son of a Florida colonist and an altar boy who did not want to be separated from the priests he had served. The location of the Ajacán mission was near the Indian town of Kiskiack on the Pamunkey (York) River.
Students perform the work of editors or curators
Let’s examine three ways Atlantic-centric approaches have shaped interpretations of early colonization with special attention to North American Indians.
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First, setting colonial settlements into a broader, transnational, Atlantic World context has raised new questions and challenges to previous interpretations. Alan Taylor, for example, has pointed out that the North American population from 1492 to 1776 actually declined. Many readers will be surprised to hear this statement, given the large numbers of immigrants in the period, especially after the 1700s. Despite this influx of immigrants and the thousands of Africans forcibly transported the losses of North America’s native people, decimated by disease, warfare, and a massive uprooting of Indian communities, more than made up for these additions. Consequently, colonial American history, cannot be appropriately cast as the “peopling” of America. Such an interpretation is a good example of the persistence of Eurocentric perspectives still present in early generation Atlantic World studies. Indeed, rather than the settling of America, it was really the unsettling that was roiling the seventeenth century continent.