Grose (Longmans, Green, 1874-1875)

We know, after all, how oppressive fingernail polish is; and women would only wear it when they are suffering from "false consciousness" (internalizing the values of the Patriarchy) and are willing to cooperate in their own oppression.

by Martin Bell (Penguin, 1990)Secondary sources:

According to Hume, little human knowledge can be derived from the deductively certain.

by David Fate Norton (Cambridge, 1993)

Non-cognitivism first came on the scene as a rather starkly drawnalternative to prevailing cognitivist and realist construals of moraldiscourse. As it developed to enable it to explain features of moraldiscourse relied on by its critics, the view became more subtle andpresented a less stark contrast with realist positions. The mainnegative claims were often somewhat moderated. For example, the claimthat moral judgments had no descriptive meaning evolved into a claimthat any such meanings were secondary. The claim that moral judgmentscould not be true or false became the claim that they could be true orfalse only in a minimal or deflationary sense. Not all of the shiftshave been embraced by all non-cognitivists, but it is fair to say thatcurrent versions are more complex and subtle than the theories fromwhich they descend. As a result the arguments for and against the viewshave gotten rather intricate and even technical. That trend is likelyto continue for at least a while longer as ideas from other areas ofphilosophy are employed to further hone the objections and fill out theresponses to them.

by Rupert Read and Kenneth Richman (Routledge, 2000)

A short discussion of a still different collapse argument employedagainst noncognitivism by Frank Jackson and Philip Pettit, one whichhas generated quite a bit of literature, can be found in the followingsupplementary document.

Bracht Branham and Marie Odile Goulet-Caze (California, 2000) andD.
by Henry David Aiken (Free Press, 1975)Additional on-line information about Hume includes:

Hayek" class="bold-blue""Foreword" to .

Few feminists would enjoy a , but they might actually approve of the way the would pull out the fingernails of women they found who were wearing fingernail polish.

So, Keith brought him to the party."The validity of this pattern of reasoning is evident from .

in the Sumerian city-state of Lagash.

of Cambridge

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maintained that mental states can be wholly  as dispositions of human bodies.

Cress (Hackett, 1999);Janet Broughton, (Princeton, 2002);E.

Still many non-cognitivists have argued that the view does not entailor justify relativism. They claim that whether or not a moral judgmentis mistaken is itself a matter for moral theorizing. A speaker shouldonly call a moral judgment true if he or she accepts that judgment. Aspeaker who expresses his or her acceptance of relativism in thenormal way might say something such as “They're both sayingsomething true”. This might seem to be expressing commitment toa very deferential moral theory—one according to which eachagent should just do what she believes is right. The non-cognitivistswho adopt this response argue that this natural interpretation of suchclaims is correct. What may seem to be a higher level metaethicalclaim—that no consistent set of moral judgments ismistaken—, is really just another moral judgment and hence onewhich would be rejected by any moral judge with substantive moralcommitments (Blackburn 1998, 296 & 304; Timmons 1999; Horgan andTimmons 2006c).If this line of argument works it will allownon-cognitivism to gain the allegiance of those who wish to denyrelativism while giving the motivations that lead to both it andnon-cognitivism their due.