The rules are described in more detail, with examples, in .

If you're a student and have ever had to write Reports, Essays or a Thesis, you will have had to reference what you have used in your report. If you mention something that someone else has written, you need to give them credit by referencing their work.

You will therefore be expected to use the format set out below.

An important component of your writing will be the effective use of reference material.

For example: (Walters, 1994) or (Austin, 1996).

Hsing, Y., Baraya, A., & Budden, M. (2005). Macroeconomic policies and economic growth: The case of Costa Rica. Journal of Applied Business Research, 21(2), 105–112. Retrieved from

You can use them for explanatory text, but not for references.

Order: author(s), year of publication, article title (not in italics), journal name (in italics), volume number (in italics), issue number, page number range of the article (if available), URL or journal home page.

This skill will serve you well in writing papers of all types, not just those required for classes.

Theses and personal communications

You may be required to use slightly different formats for other papers, such as papers submitted for publication to refereed journals, each of which typically have their own styles.

Enclose the date in parentheses.

However, you have to be aware that you are using someone else's work for your own benefit. You will get the marks, but the author of the ideas may have put in decades of research to come up with the concepts.

1. B. Smith, thesis, Georgetown University (1973).

For whole books, monographs, memos, or reports, the style for author or editor names is as above; for edited books, insert "Ed.," or "Eds.," before the title. Italicize the book title and use initial caps. After the title, provide (in parentheses) the publisher name, publisher location, edition number (if any), and year. If these are unavailable, or if the work is unpublished, please provide all information needed for a reader to locate the work; this may include a URL or a Web or FTP address. For unpublished proceedings or symposia, supply the title of meeting, location, inclusive dates, and sponsoring organization. There is no need to supply the total page count. If the book is part of a series, indicate this after the title (e.g., vol. 23 of Springer Series in Molecular Biology).

The fat-soluble vitamins: handbook of lipid research 2.

The most fundamental specialization of the eusocial insects is the division of colony members into two castes, workers (functionally sterile individuals) and reproductives.1

Please find below HowTo videos to setup Freenom World on the following devices

See an of different types of references and learn more about .

Basic GuidelinesThe purpose of the term paper in ECS 15 is for you to learn how to do effective research on a subject and then write it up clearly, showing where you got your information.

Oral research reports are also useful, but this course does not cover them.

If there are two authors, separate their names with "and".

Journals, Magazines, and NewspapersThe following apply to citing the name and identifying information for journals, magazines, newspapers, and periodicals in general.

Learning how to follow one such set of rules is a worthwhile exercise.

Charniak, E., Riesbeck, C., McDermott, D.

The structure for an article appearing in a magazine is similar to that of a journal article. However, the publication date should also include the month and day of publication.