Other actions that may resemble vomiting, butare not

§ 2. This is the idea which belongs to body, whereby we conceive it to fill space. The idea of which filling of space is, that, where we imagine any space taken up by a solid substance, we conceive it so to possess it, that it excludes all other solid substances; and will for ever hinder any other two bodies, that move towards one another in a straight line, from coming to touch one another, unless it removes from between them, in a line not parallel to that which they move in. This idea of it the bodies which we ordinarily handle sufficiently furnish us with.

The rat's stomach has two parts (Robert 1971):

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As the Fenwicks point out, if OBEs and NDEs are hallucinations,

Fox is speaking as if he ahead of time what these different people have experienced. But of course assuming that these reports are describing the same thing regardless of what they actually say begs the question, for that is the very issue of contention. Fox asserts that the episode of darkness is what is encountered, but that it is being described as 'space'—but ? Of course he doesn't know; he just assumes.

Veridical Paranormal Perception During OBEs?

After finding several accounts of visiting outer space in the RERC archives, Fox asserted that many NDErs "were found to use the descriptor 'space' to describe the episode of darkness" (Fox 265). Soon after he wrote: "The significance of the word 'space' to describe the darkness encountered in these experiences will be returned to" (265). Finally, Fox skewed what was actually reported by NDErs by concluding that many of his RERC respondents "describe an encounter with some sort of darkness motif in terms seemingly suggestive of a visit to outer space" (277).

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may be viewed at the New York Times.

(1) In other NDEs that, on the survivalist interpretation, is assumed to take place in a soul or double that separated from the normal physical body long ago. The Fenwicks report an NDE during a hernia operation where a bodily sensation is felt well into the experience:

Rodabough explains how unintentional interviewer feedback can contaminate NDE reports:

Ossenkopp and Ossenkopp 1985, 1990

During the expulsive phase of vomiting in humans, the activity ofthese two diaphragm muscles diverges. The costal section contracts,putting pressure on the stomach, while the crural section relaxes,allowing stomach contents to pass through the esophagus (reviewed inPickering and Jones 2002). Rats, however, do not dissociate theactivity of these two parts of their diaphragm: they do not relax thecrural section while contracting the costal section. Instead, bothmuscles contract or relax together (Pollard 1985). Therat's inability to separately and selectively control its twodiaphragmatic muscles therefore plays an important role in itsinability to vomit: the rat can't put the necessary pressure on thestomach and open the crural sling to allow the contents to escape atthe same time.

responds to selected emetics, doesn't have CTZ (brain area involved in vomiting)

vomiting response varies seasonally

Starting with putting a friendlier face on computing and the concept of computers for everyone, Jobs thought different. Interface and design intersected in ways not before conceived of in the computing world. Computers, email, face-to-face communication via your cell phone or computer, ease of access to information, research, music, and software have changed the landscape of the world. Jobs played a role in this, as did many others. But I give Steve Jobs much credit for the role he played.

emetic reflex develops with age

Chondrichthyes: rays, sharks, and relatives

Whichever model turns out to be correct, a preponderance of the evidence suggests that that model will be a psychophysiological one. For if OBEs and NDEs truly represent the detachment of a person's soul from his body, why would people with certain characteristics have a greater ability to leave the body? If some mechanism can be activated to achieve such a detachment, why would that mechanism have any connection to purely psychological traits? The "projection theory" does not make much sense of the extensive psychological data collected on OBErs and NDErs. But those data clearly makes sense on a psychophysiological understanding of such experiences.