This is supposed to increase better wellbeing in the afterlife.

First their name was called of the dead and the body was was washed thoroughly and a coin was placed in the body's mouth, this was the payment to the underworld god, Charon for safe passage.

There was a period of time before the body was cremated.

The ancient roman government even gave out taxes to the super poor especially for funerals.

Marriage in rome is basically bonding sharing of property.

In the introduction of , Jo-Ann Shelton discusses how the Romans "took the remarkable action of granting Roman citizenship to every free person within the borders of the Roman Empire." It does not sound as if women were excluded. In , Richard A. Bauman says that "the public position of women was so unfavourable that it has even been doubted whether they were Roman citizens. The doubts are unfounded ..." So it seems that they had a higher position than Athenian women, who were not considered citizens. They did have something in common: neither was allowed to vote or to participate in political activities. This applies primarily to the Republican Period, since the kings made the decisions during the Monarchy and the Emperor had the final say during the Roman Empire. In Augustus' time, the assemblies began to fade into the shadows. Regardless of the laws, inscriptions uncovered in Pompeii from the first century AD prove that women had an interest in politics. An example, painted on the side of a house states: "Nymphodotus, along with Caprasia, asks you to vote for Marcus Cerrinus Vatia for the aedileship." Another, found on the side of a wine shop reads: "Caprasia along with Nymphius -- her neighbors too -- ask you to vote for Aulus Vettius Firmus for the aedileship; he is worthy of the office."

RING-GIVING: See discussion under .

Although the role of women in ancient Rome was primarily child-bearing, women also played an important role in raising the children. This differed greatly from the Athenian tradition which placed both the cultural and educational aspects of raising boys exclusively in the hands of men. In the Roman world, women were encouraged to teach their children Roman culture. When the boys grew up, the mother would spend both her money and time to advance their political careers.Even the girls would receive this sort of home education because they would be expected to teach their own children one day. In , Quintilian reports that Cornelia, mother of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus, played a major role in their education and cultivation. Roman women had children, but they were not exclusively "tools of reproduction" -- they "were also a fundamental instrument of the transmission of a culture ... [and] it was their job to prepare them to become ... " Who were they preparing to become Roman citizens? Were only the males given citizenship, as was the case for centuries in Athens? This is a difficult question to answer.

because there will be more mourners and visitors than lower ranking people.
The benefits that came from marriage were citizenship, property and children.


RUNE: In a writing system designed to be scratched or carved on a flat surface such as wood or stone, the individual letters are known as runes. Typically, these markings have few or no curves, circles, or dots, but instead, each mark consists of a number of straight cuts or strokes. (The strokes may, however, involve complex combinations of vertical, horizontal, and diagonal lines.) Runic writing systems tend to appear in areas where paper or parchment are scarce or unknown or where ink is commonly unavailable. Typical runic marks might indicate ownership of a house or object, they may be magic spells designed to be cut or scratched on a shield as a pagan protective charm, and they may mark boundary stones. It is accordinly rare to find lengthy literary writings done in runes--which naturally tend to force brevity upon the communicant given the effort involved in cutting or carving them. Runes were common among ancient and medieval inhabitants of Scandinavia, the continental Germanic tribes, and among the Anglo-Saxons who invaded Britain. By the High Middle Ages, parchment, pen, and ink had largely displaced the runic writing systems. Contrast with markings among the Celts.

Lower Classed woman typically married later on as there was no gain in it for them.

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THE MODERN AND POST MODERN TIMES (Grade 12) This 32-week course offers an in-depth look at Romanticism in Europe, England, and America. It also covers European and American Realism and Naturalism in both the Victorian Era in England and during Modern and Post Modern Times. The fall semester writing will focus on critical analysis and the spring semester on research and text documentation. The major writings covered in Grade 12 include modern writers, historical writings, short stories, and poetry.

The wife is not allowed any toys or dolls in her possession, she has to give all of them away.

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Aristocratic families wanted male children to carry on the family name and lineage, and expected their wives to be perpetually pregnant. Infertility was actually grounds for divorce, and women would often offer a divorce so that their husbands would have the opportunity to have children with someone else. Women from the lower classes would not be expected to have as many children because they did not have the means to support them. These women may also have worked outside the home to help support their families. Their husbands would still want a son to carry on the family name and if they were a rural family, to help work on the farm. But certainly there was a difference between the higher echelon of Roman society and the lower classes: Upper class women had more children.