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By the early 1700s, and other writers began openly challenging the Church and began arguing for freedom as everybody’s birthright, and the began. Voltaire spent his first stint behind bars in 1717 for his satirical writings. Some have placed the Enlightenment’s beginning in the 1600s, with the feats of and Newton, but as with many other movements, their beginnings were modest. Not until about 1750 was the institution of slavery, hallowed for several thousand years by that time, challenged for the first time on universal grounds. In 1315, France’s , but as France joined the colonial competition, it relied on slave labor for its Caribbean plantations. Ironically, in a French colony, Haiti, although the victory was pyrrhic in ways, as that former slave colony is the .

diagram showing how the greenhouse effect works.

Version 1.2, published May 2015. Version 1.0 published September 2014.

Global warming, climate change.

In a striking similarity to the of evolutionary innovations, many human traits are vestiges of our history but have yet to disappear, but various social managers have used them to exploit the masses. For instance, the has a and developed because those were the most energy-rich foods that existed. But the incredibly high sugar and fat content of processed food vended by Western agribusiness companies plays to those biological proclivities in the name of profit. Diets based on such foods are disastrous for human health, and industrialized peoples, led by the USA, are the . Similarly, in-group "loyalty" (to fight the out-group) is a that arose to ensure survival. Ever since the , a goal of social managers has been forming that in-group cohesion to battle the out-group. There is not much sentient about it. As the and have made clear, people can be arbitrarily split along almost any lines and form an in-group and out-group, and the out-group will then be treated terribly. Darwin's "from the war of nature" comes "higher animals" conclusion in his is mirrored in the work of Marx and Hitler, in that they believed that human "progress" was produced by one social group violently prevailing over another. Hitler avidly read Marx, and may be how he received his "revolutionary" ideas.

Cartoon vector illustration in flat style.

The racist ideology that Hitler’s regime promoted was only a of what other imperial aspirants already had, and and he modeled his genocidal plans for Eastern Europe after what the . Hitler’s ideological crime was using racist ideology to make chosen people inferior. All such ideologies appealed to people’s egos as they elevated their and, with their superiority then self-evident, they could commit their awesome crimes with clear consciences, free of .

A number of acronyms in this essay are not commonly used and at least one is unique to my work.
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c. 4.6 billion years ago (“bya”)

For 10 million years, Earth’s ecosystems readily adapted to the warmer temperatures, but Greenland , and by 14 mya the party was over and a steady that lasted all the way to the beginning of the current ice age, as the Antarctic ice sheets grew like never before. Once again, tropical flora and fauna in high latitudes either . Reefs cannot migrate, so those outside the shrinking tropics died out.

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Organisms begin to directly capture photonic solar energy.

Readers for the collective task that I have in mind need to become familiar with the scientific process, partly so they can develop a critical eye for the kinds of arguments and evidence that attend the pursuit of FE and other fringe science/technology efforts. For the remainder of this essay, I will attempt to refrain from referring to too many scientific papers and getting into too many details of the controversies. Following my references will help readers who want to go deeply into the issues, and many of them are as deep and controversial as the Snowball Earth hypothesis and aftermath has proven to be, or attempts to explain the . These are relatively new areas of scientific investigation, partly due to an improved scientific toolset and ingenious ways to use them. It is very possible that the controversies in those areas will diminish within the next generation as new hypotheses account for increasingly sophisticated data, and in the near future are nearly certain. But science is always subject to becoming dogmatic and hypotheses can prevail for reasons of wealth, power, rhetorical skill, and the like, not because they are valid. The history of science is plagued with that phenomenon, and probably will be as long as humanity lives in the era of scarcity.

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Allows for direct energy capture of complex life, and led to plants.

As with the , contemporary New English observers noted the local climate changes in New England by the late 1700s, when the summers got hotter, the winters colder, and the land became more arid. Streams disappeared during the summer and flooded in the winter. In his classic study, William Cronon noted that New England became “sunnier, windier, hotter, colder, and drier” than before it was deforested. The eastern seaboard began turning to British coal soon after the American Revolution. , and early America relied on British coal. It was not until canals and railroads were built that the USA began to use its domestically mined coal. The anthracite mines of Pennsylvania turned Pittsburgh, Buffalo, Philadelphia, and other cities in the region into the heart of early American industry. Steam locomotives were , and is credited with building the first , after many years of effort. The opened for business in 1825, and the was built between Baltimore and the Ohio River in 1830, as Baltimore competed with the canals that serviced Philadelphia and New York. Railroads became humanity’s first low-energy transportation lanes that were not bodies of water (roads kind of qualified, but they were minor advances compared to railroads). Many American cites were not built on bodies of water but along rail lines and, later, roads traveled by cars and trucks.