RING-GIVING: See discussion under .

The alliance, signed by the mayor and Alain Seban, the president of the Pompidou Centre, will cost the city council a million euros annually for the use of the name, the loan of artworks and a temporary exhibition once a year. This figure, according to De la Torre, is “acceptable even during an economic crisis”.

Henrik Ibsen Biography - MNC Online

Henrik Ibsen | Literary Studies

Both the great dramas for reading, (1866)and (1867), were based on Ibsen's problematicrelationship with his country of birth. Political developments in 1864led him to lose his optimistic belief in his country's future. He evenbegan to doubt whether his countrymen had a historical raison d'êtreas a nation.

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What he had earlier treated as a national problem of identity nowbecame a question of the individual's personal integrity. It was no longersufficient to dwell on an earlier historical era of greatness and focuson the continuity of the nation's life. Ibsen turned away from history,and confronted what he considered the main contemporary problem - a nationcan only rise up culturally by means of the individual's exertion of will."Brand" is mainly a drama with a message that the individualmust follow the path of volition in order to achieve true humanity In addition,this is the only way to real freedom - for the individual, and it follows,for society as a whole.


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Scribe could teach him how a drama's plot should be structured ina logically motivated progression of scenes. Hebbel provided him with anexample of the way drama could be based on life's contemporary dialectics,creating a modern conceptual drama. Hebbel's pioneering work was his conveyanceof the ideologicalconflicts of his day into the theater where he created"a drama of issues" pointing forward. He also knew how the Greektragedy's retrospective technique could be used by a modern dramatist.

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In other words, Ibsen was in close contact with the art of the stagefor a long uninterrupted period. His six years at the theater in Bergen(1851-57) and the following four or five years at the theater in Kristianiafrom 1857 were not easy. But he acquired a sharp eye for theatrical techniquesand possibilities.

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In spite of this insecurity, it is a determined young writer we seeduring these years. His goal was clearly national. Together with his friendand colleague Bjornstjerne Bjornson (1832-1910), he founded "The NorwegianCompany" in 1859, an organ for Norwegian art and culture. They hada joint program for their activities. Ibsen was especially concerned withthe role of theater in the young Norwegian nation's search for its ownidentity In these "nation-building" pursuits, he gathered hismaterial from the country's medieval history and perfected his art as adramatist. This is prominent in the work that caps Ibsen's period of apprenticeship,"The Pretenders" from 1863. The story takes place in Norway inthe 1200s, a period marked by destructive strife. But Ibsen's perspectiveis Norway of the 1860s when he has the king, Haakon Haakonsson, expresshis thoughts on national unity:

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In the two rather different twin works and, the focus is on the problem of personality,Ibsen dramatizes the conflict between an opportunistic acting out of anunnatural role, and a dedication to a demanding lifelong quest. In , the dramatist created a scene which artistically illustratesthis situation of conflict. The aging Peer, on his way back to his Norwegianroots is forced to come to terms with himself. As he looks back upon hiswasted life, he peels an onion. He lets each layer represent a differentrole he has played. But he finds no core. He has to face the fact thathe has become "no one", that he has no "self".

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Ibsen's apprenticeship was long, lasting about 15 years, and includedtheater work he later would claim to be as difficult as "having anabortion every day." There was a strong pressure to produce hangingover him; one that led to fumbling attempts in many directions. He experienceda few minor artistic victories - and numerous defeats. Very few believedthat he had the necessary gift to become more than a minor theatrical writerwith a modicum of talent.