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Today`s advances in gene therapy make it possible to even remove a faulty gene and replace it with a functioning gene in cells lacking this function. Though these techniques are available, they are still in the experimental stages. Somatic cell therapy, for example, uses faulty genes to target the affected areas for genetic treatment. This technique is beneficial in the treatment of cancers and lung, blood and liver disorders. Since the treatment is localised, any unwanted effects of this are not passed on to the next generation.

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What, if any, health risks are associated with transgenics and genetically modified foods?13

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To write a successful research paper on genetic engineering, the writer must first know what the subject is all about. Genetic engineering is the manual addition of new DNA to an organism to add one or more new traits that are generally not found in that organism. It is also called genetic modification. Aside from introducing additional copies of a gene to an organism, it may also mean changing or replacing one base pair or even deleting a whole region of DNA. It could also mean taking DNA from one organism and mixing it with the DNA of another. All these processes are used by scientists to modify certain characteristics of an individual organism. As an example, genetic engineering is used to create plants that have a higher nutritional value or are able to tolerate exposure to herbicides.

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The process of creating a transgene begins by isolating the gene of interest from a donor organism or selecting for purchase any of the thousands of known genes from massive online genomic databases. Once the gene is obtained, it is usually altered so it can function more effectively or be expressed more readily in the host organism. That gene is then combined with other genetic elements and introduced into a second organism (the host), at which point it’s known as a transgene. A transgenic organism is further defined as one that contains a transgene introduced by technological methods rather than through selective breeding. Hybrids are transgenic organisms created when reproductive cells from two species combine to form a single embryo (e.g., a mule is the offspring of a horse and a donkey); on the other hand, chimeras are created by artificially combining genetic material from two organisms into a single species.

Cloning is the act of making a person thought genetic engineered instead of a natural process.

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Figure 6: The International Olympic Committee is one of multiple organizations that have expressed public concern about genetic engineering.

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On the other hand, the benefits to humans are obvious where gene replacement has been successful in improving aspects of food production. For example, production costs can be lowered and health, taste and look of a product maximised. Equally, a lot of food shortage problems in the Third World could be solved by adapting crops to grow in such harsh conditions.

In this essay it will be said wether genetic engineering is ethical or unethical.

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The field of transgenics allows scientists to develop organisms that express a novel trait not normally found in a species; for example, potatoes that are protein rich, or rice that has elevated levels of vitamin A (known as “golden rice”).1,2 Transgenics may be also used to save endangered species such as the American Chestnut tree, which is currently being repopulated by Chinese-American chestnut hybrids specifically engineered with a genetic resistance to the chestnut blight—the deadly fungus that nearly decimated native populations in the early 1900s.3

Genetic Engineering and Cloning changes the natural possess in humans, plants, and animals....

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In a similar vein, the medical director of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) has expressed concern that athletes have started employing genetic engineering to get an edge over their competition.29 If individuals are willing to genetically manipulate their children to make them better athletes, then it’s likely individuals will be willing to manipulate their children to better looking, more musically inclined, or whatever else might give them an advantage. Opponents of genetic manipulation argue that, by allowing this, we run the risk of creating a race of superhumans, changing what it means to be “normal” and increasing the ever-widening gap between the haves and the have-nots. Proponents of genetic manipulation argue that currently parents can and do give their children advantages by sending them to better schools or giving them growth hormones, and that banning genetic manipulation is a denial of individual liberties. These arguments also reflect the opposing philosophies regarding how scarce resources should be allocated.