The Gates Millennium Scholars Program

Onion, Rebecca. 2009. Sled Dogs of the American North: On Masculinity, Whiteness, and Human Freedom. In Sarah McFarland and Ryan Hediger (eds.) Animals and Agency. Brill Press.

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Barton, M. 1987. Animal Rights. London: Watts .

Pember, G. H. 2003. Animals, Their Past and Future: The Classic Theological Treatise on Animal Rights. Louisville, KY: Cross Reference Imprints.

Broom, Donald. 2014. Sentience and Animal Welfare. CABI.

'Cunt' is known euphemistically as 'the monosyllable', 'the bawdy monosyllable', 'the divine monosyllable', and 'the venerable monosyllable', though, paradoxically, its earliest forms (such as 'cunte', 'cunnus', and 'kunta') were all disyllabic. Germaine Greer's lists a page of 'cunt' synonyms under the heading and Jonathon Green's features a similar selection of vaginal slang terms headed . Artist Jason Rhoades created a deluxe lambskin-bound book/sculpture titled (2004), in which he listed various 'cunt' synonyms.

Aaltola, Elisa. 2012. Animal Suffering: Philosophy and Culture. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Scruton, Roger. 1996. Animal Rights and Wrongs. London: Demos.

Lawrence, Elizabeth A. 1990. The tamed wild: Symbolic bears in American culture. In Ray Browne, Marshall William Fishwick, and Kevin Browne (eds.), Dominant Symbols in Popular Culture, 140-153. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University Popular Press.

Singer, Peter. 1987. Liberation of animal rights. Monist 70(1): 3-14.

The band Cradle Of Filth also exploited the potency of this equation with their t-shirt, emblazoned with the slogan 'JESUS IS A CUNT'. The slogan (also used on bumper-stickers) was parodied by the as "Cradle Of Filth Are Even Bigger Cunts" (2000). The aim was toconstruct a slogan that was both as offensive and as succinct aspossible; by appropriating our culture's most revered icon (Jesus) andequating it with our greatest taboo ('cunt'), they achieved their goal.

Slicer, Deborah. 1991. Your daughter or your dog? Hypatia 6: 108-124.

Thisjuxtaposition of the sacred and the profane - God saying "cunt" -recalls Sigmund Freud's two-fold definition of 'taboo' (both religionand defilement). The intense controversy generated following thissuccinct juxtaposition demonstrates that one plus one can sometimesequal four. In other words, when sacred and profane symbols arecombined, they produce more than the sum of their parts. This was thecase when featured both 'cunt'and Christ, according to Stephen Armstrong: "saying 'cunt' isn't theissue. It's saying 'cunt' and having Jesus in the same programme thatbecomes the issue" (Pete Woods, 2007). Similarly, the musical includes the line "Fuck you God in the ass, mouth, and cunt-a" (Trey Parker, Robert Lopez, and Matt Stone; 2011).

Abram, David. 2011. Becoming Animal: An Earthly Cosmology. New York: Vintage Books.

Garner, Robert. 2005. Animal Ethics. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Blokhuis, Harry, Mara Miele, Isabelle Veissier and Bryan Jones (eds.) . 2013. Improving Farm Animal Welfare. Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers.

Adams, Carol J. 2010. The War on Compassion. Antennae 14 (Autumn): 5-11.

Ingold, Tim (ed.). 1994. What is an Animal? London: Routledge.

Einwohner, Rachel L. 1999. Practices, opportunity, and protest effectiveness: Illustrations from four animal rights campaigns. Social Problems 46(2): 169-186.

Appleby, Michael C. 1999. What Should We Do About Animal Welfare? Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell Science.

Levin, M.E. 1977. Animal rights evaluated. The Humanist 37: 12-15.

Lawrence, Elizabeth A. 1989. Neoteny in American perceptions of animals. In R.J. Hoage (ed.), Perceptions of Animals in American Culture, 57-76. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.