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Abstract: According to epidemiological studies, insomnia is associated with cardiovascular mortality. However, it is yet to be determined whether this link is mediated by known cardiovascular risk factors. The current study aimed at investigating the association between primary insomnia, defined as subjectively reported sleep disturbance in the absence of any other pathology or substance intake, and alterations in polysomnographically determined nocturnal heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). A total of 4,581 nocturnal short-term electrocardiographic recordings (5 min each) from 104 participants (58 with primary insomnia, 46 healthy controls) were evaluated for HR as well as for time and frequency domain measures of HRV. In the primary insomnia group, we found a lower wake-to-sleep HR reduction and a lower standard deviation of RR intervals (SDNN) compared to healthy controls. However, between-group differences in resting HR were not found, and previous results of an increase in sympathovagal balance and a decrease in parasympathetic nocturnal activity in objectively determined insomnia could not be confirmed in our sample of self-report insomnia patients. When restricting our analyses to insomnia patients with objectively determined short sleep duration, we found reduced parasympathetic activity as indicated by decreased high frequency power of HRV, as well as decreased root mean square of successive RRI differences (RMSSD) and percentage of successive RRIs that differ by more than 50 ms (pNN50) values. A lower wake-to-sleep HR reduction and alterations in HRV variables might, at least partially, mediate the increased rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality observed in insomnia patients.

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  - Cultures of the Mayans, Pawnee, Choctaw, Apache, Comanche, Nez Perce, Mohawk and others.

Religion and magicwere fused with practical

Barbara Stuhler and Gretchen V. Kreuter (editors). , published by Minnesota Historical Society Press, Saint Paul, Minnesota, 1977. Reissue of .

Lose your temper and you lose a friend; lie and you lose yourself.

Abstract: Slahal is a gambling game played by North American natives on the North Pacific coast. This activity is of particular interest to the ethnomusicologist because of the large body of songs which not only accompanies but also is intimately linked with it. The thesis which follows is a résumé of research done over the past two and one-half years and deals with the slahal songs of the Coast Salish. I begin with a description of the game itself the object of which is to guess the location of two tokens concealed in the hands of the opponents. We soon learn that gambling music, as one may say about music in general, has a certain power -- the ability to elevate the entire game experience into a different and more exciting realm than that of an ordinary game. The main bulk of the thesis is in the second part where I have presented 77 representative songs out of 194, transcribed from over twelve hours of music. Along with the songs are analyses and comments which are found in summary form in Part III. The concluding section touches upon the significance of slahal in present-day Indian culture.

- Articles refering to Native Americans as they were the first to inhabit the country.
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Edward Sapir; Jacob D. Sapir (transcriptions).

Louise Spear. “Moving from the Analog to the Digital Millennium: Discovery and Rediscovery Among the Field Recordings in the UCLA Ethnomusicology Archive”, contained in , 2002, pages 381–384.

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Ami Sarasvati. , November 16, 2015, 30 pages. See the .

Margaret Sargent. “Folk and Primitive Music in Canada”, , Volume 4, published by the International Council for Traditional Music, 1952, pages 65–68. (subscription access).

These renowned historians and experts chatted with students online. Read the transcripts.

Eberhard Sengpiel. , 2009, 1 page.

Excerpt from the preface: These tales were recorded on First Mesa by Alexander M. Stephen. Tales 1-17 were recorded in 1893, tales 18--28, ten years earlier. These earlier tales, although heard from some of the same informants as the later tales, seem in many ways different in character, almost giving the impression at times of a different culture. This is perplexing to the editor who suggests that it may be due largely to the recorder's comparative unfamiliarity with the Hopi people and their language at the earlier period, perhaps to his greater familiarity with the Navaho, for the narrative has something of a Navaho character, perhaps also to the form his inquiry may have taken, along the lines of historic origins.