Malthusian Theory of Population

Mill makes two far-reaching qualifications to his principle that the boundaries of state and nation should coincide. First, circumstances may sometimes render it difficult or impossible to implement: for example, in parts of Europe, notably the Austrian Empire, nationalities were so intricately intermingled as to make separate national states impracticable. In such cases the people affected must make a virtue of necessity and tolerantly accept life together under regimes of equal rights and equal laws. Second, it is often socially advantageous for a small nationality, rather than pursuing political independence, to merge in a larger one. He thinks it preferable for a Breton or Basque to become a part of the richly-endowed French nation than “to sulk on his own rocks, the half-savage relic of past times, revolving in his own little mental orbit, without participation or interest in the general movement of the world” (549). He believes that this also applies to the Welshman and the Scottish Highlander. Whatever his sympathy for such small nations, he is confident that their members would reap cultural benefits from close association with the larger nation, and in return confer benefits. In this type of situation it is essential for the weaker to receive not only equal justice but equal consideration, and thus help to blend qualities inherent in the different nationalities to the advantage of mankind.

Malthus an essay on the principle of population analysis

Thomas Robert Malthus was the first economist to propose a systematic theory of population

An Essay on the Principle of Population ..

[T]he principle which regulates the existing social relationsbetween the two sexes—the legal subordination of one sex to theother—is wrong in itself, and now one of the chief hindrances tohuman improvement; and … it ought to be replaced by a principleof perfect equality, admitting no power or privilege on the one side,nor disability on the other. (SW 261)

An Essay On The Principle Of Population Summary

Mill applies his liberal principles to issues of sexual equalityprimarily in The Subjection of Women. He denounces existingforms of sexual inequality in clear and unequivocal terms.

John Stuart Mill, The Collected Works of John Stuart Mill, Volume XVIII - Essays on Politics and Society Part I (On Liberty) [1977]
See, for example, the satiric treatment in the essays by the two Mills in the first and second numbers of the  (1824).

Thomas Malthus: Essay on the Principle of Population …

In quoting the assertions that the democratic principle is carried out in America to its utmost length, and that equality of condition among mankind has there reached its ultimate limit, we cannot refrain from observing (though the remark is foreign to the specific purpose of the present Article) that both these propositions, though true in our author’s sense, and so far as is necessary for his purpose, must, in another sense, be received with considerable limitations. We do not allude merely to the exclusion of paupers and menial servants, or to the existence, in many States, of a property qualification for electors because the qualification probably in no case exceeds the means of a large majority of the free citizens. We allude, in the first place, to the slaves; and not only to them, but to all free persons having the slightest admixture of negro blood, who are ruthlessly excluded, in some States by law, and in the remainder by actual bodily fear, from the exercise of any the smallest political right. As for social equality, it may be judged how far they are in possession of it, when no white person will sit at the same table with them, or on the same bench in a public room, and when there is scarcely any lucrative occupation open to them except that of domestic servants, which in that country the white race do not relish. It is scarcely necessary to add, that in America as elsewhere, one entire half of the human race is wholly excluded from the political equality so much boasted of, and that in point of social equality their position is still more dependent than in Europe. In the American democracy, the aristocracy of skin, and the aristocracy of sex, retain their privileges.

Malthusian Theory of Population - American …

Positive checks are those, according to Thomas Malthus, that increase the death rate. These include disease, war, disaster, and finally when other checks don't reduce population, famine. Malthus felt that the fear of famine or the development of famine was also a major impetus to reduce the birth rate. He indicates that potential parents are less likely to have children when they know that their children are likely to starve.

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Essay On Principle Of Population | Essay generator

Is Mill right that there is no special threat to utilitarianismhere? One might wonder whether utilitarianism makes greater demands onagents than other moral theories. Contemporary writers have argued thatutilitarianism seems to be potentially very demanding, much more sothan commonsense morality. For instance, reformist utilitarians, suchas Peter Singer (1972), have argued that utilitarianism entailsextensive duties of mutual aid that would call for significant changesin the lifestyles of all those who are even moderately well off. Andcritics of utilitarianism have treated the demandingness ofutilitarianism as one of its principal flaws. Rawls (1971) has arguedthat the sort of interpersonal sacrifice that utilitarianism requiresviolates the strains of commitment in a well-ordered society. AndBernard Williams (1973) has argued that the demandingness ofutilitarianism threatens the sort of personal projects and partialrelationships that help give our lives meaning. The common complainthere is that utilitarianism's demands threaten to offend against arequirement of psychological realism, according to which thedemands of an acceptable moral theory must be ones that can beincorporated into a reasonable and satisfying life plan.