essay on the history of civil society;

Uncivil society also has a somewhat archaic set of -based connotations once summed up as the absence of - a society characterized by , and rudeness. (To be rude in this sense is to display behavior associated with lower classes or orders or to show insufficient sensitivity to others, or both.)

Ferguson: An Essay on the History of Civil Society by …

Summary Mill starts off by limiting the scope of his essay to Civil, or Social Liberty

an essay on the history of civil society ..

Writing in 2005, Michael Edwards saw three distinct conceptions of civil society in the post-1989 international scene: Civil society as associational life; civil society as the good society; and civil society as the . "Each of these three schools of thought has a respectable intellectual history" he noted, "and is visible in the discourse of scholars, politicians, foundations and international agencies, but it is the first - civil society as associational life - that is dominant. It is Alexis de Tocqueville's ghost that wanders through the corridors of the World Bank, not that of Habermas or Hegel. Indeed, the first two schools of thought are regularly conflated - it being assumed that a healthy associational life contributes to, or even produces, the good society in predictable ways - while the public sphere is usually ignored."

SparkNotes: The Pre-Civil War Era (1815–1850): …

The early years following publication of Ferguson's work (1767) were characterized by much interest in Great Britain, continental Europe and the colonial Americas and the new United States. There were, however, few memorable additions or extensions of Ferguson until Hegel (1827). Alexis de Tocqueville's (1845) is today widely cited in connection with civil society, despite no mention of civil society in that work. The indexes of the 1945 Bradley, Reeve and Bowen translation most readers are likely to recognize and the more recent Mansfield translation contain mention of the term. Tocqueville expanded considerably on numerous themes of civil society with no explicit reference to the concept itself or to Ferguson or Hegel. In Europe, as well, there are works by a host of scholars including (who largely rejected the idea of civil society independent of the state as part of his departure from Hegel), , , and a great many others. Nineteenth and early 20th century scholars did much to elaborate the concept of society as an autonomous sphere of activity, albeit with little explicit emphasis on the civil. (A great deal of work in historical sociology as well elaborates on these themes.)

May 28, 2014 · An essay on the history of civil society ..
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Period 1: 1491-1607 - AP US History Study Guide from …

In the new millennium, Robert Putnam used the metaphoric comparison of bowling leagues in his childhood in contrast to people bowling alone in spare minutes today to frame a large body of national data suggesting declines in civic engagement and participation over recent decades. Putnam's book, along with a previously published essay and his comparative study of the civic traditions of northern and southern Italy joined the many threads of the civil society conversation already noted to a number of entirely new and previously unrelated topics. His focus on in the Italian study and provoked a host of new research initiatives. His focus on the role of television in book and essay points toward levels of cultural analysis that have yet to emerge.

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SparkNotes: On Liberty: Chapter 1, Introduction

There is an inherent tension between Thoreau's desire to limit the power of the State and the guarantee of freedom and equality that the State should provide to all of its citizens in the context of abolishing slavery. Whereas this theoretical tension remains largely unresolved in the essay, it is important to keep in mind from a purely historical standpoint that Thoreau is writing some twenty years before passage of the Fourteenth Amendment (guaranteeing equal protection and due process under the law), which substantially increased the role of the federal government in enforcing constitutional rights and freedoms. Ultimately, Thoreau's position cannot be accurately characterized as anti-government, since he is indeed willing to support some forms of social welfare with his tax dollars. His resistance to civil government springs not from some anarchic impulse or ideologically motivated hatred of the State, but from a more pragmatic understanding of how tax dollars enable the continuation of oppressive government policies.

The Economy of Esteem: An Essay on Civil and Political Society Geoffrey Brennan and Philip Pettit Abstract


In another important sense pursued by a variety of modern and theorists, anarchy (literally organized society without a ruler) is something very close to the highest form of civil society. Employing concepts like , and other theorists in this area have developed extensive statements of extremely limited (), a large (), and other notions. To some degree, anarchy in anarchist/libertarian thought offers a positive model of the phenomenon alluded to by - but never fully articulated - as the "withering away of the state".