Religion and Science (Stanford Encyclopedia of …
Albert Einstein: Religion and Science
It is unclear whether religious and scientific thinking arecognitively incompatible. Some studies suggest that religion drawsmore upon an intuitive style of thinking, distinct from the analyticreasoning style that characterizes science (Gervais and Norenzayan2012). On the other hand, the acceptance of theological and scientificviews both rely on a trust in testimony, and cognitive scientists havefound similarities between the way children and adults understandtestimony to invisible entities in religious and scientific domains(Harris et al. 2006). Moreover, theologians such as the Church Fathersand Scholastics were deeply analytic in their writings, indicatingthat the association between intuitive and religious thinking might bea recent western bias. More research is needed to examine whetherreligious and scientific thinking styles are inherently intension.
Religion and Science (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
These latter findings indicate that academics are more religiouslydiverse than has been popularly assumed and that the majority are notopposed to religion. Even so, in the US the percentage of atheists andagnostics in academia is higher than in the general population, adiscrepancy that requires an explanation. One reason might be a biasagainst theists in academia. For example, when sociologists weresurveyed whether they would hire someone if they knew the candidatewas an evangelical Christian, 39.1% said they would be less likely tohire that candidate—there were similar resultswith other religious groups, such as Mormons or Muslims (Yancey 2012). Anotherreason might be that theists internalize prevalent negative societalstereotypes, which leads them to underperform in scientific tasks andlose interest in pursuing a scientific career. Kimberly Rios et al.(2015) found that non-religious participants believe that theists,especially Christians, are less competent in and less trustful ofscience. When this stereotype was made salient, Christian participantsperformed worse in logical reasoning tasks (which were misleadinglypresented as “scientific reasoning tests”) than when thestereotype was not mentioned.