Includes "From Freedom to Bondage," by Herbert Spencer.
Some essays published earlier as pamphlets
Karl was born on August 17, 1887, at the Castle of Persenbeug in Lower Austria. As he was the great-nephew of the then ruling Emperor, Franz Joseph, it was not envisioned at his birth that it would one day fall to him to rule. Yet, his education prepared him for the task.
That as Emperor he would rule wants to be emphasized. The emperors of the Holy Roman Empire and then the Austro-Hungarian one did not merely reign, like the European monarchs who remain today, all of the “constitutional” ones. By the time of Karl’s accession their power was no longer absolute as it still was with the Russian Tsar, but it was real. None was a figurehead unless rendered so by personal incapacity.
Karl grew up imbued with a deep personal trust in God and equipped with all the Catholic moral principles whose political application he would combine, as Emperor, with his appreciation for the Church’s social doctrine. He came to the throne in 1916 due to a series of tragic events: the death at Mayerling (some say by suicide and others by assassination) of Franz Joseph’s only son, Archduke Rudolph; the early death of his own father, Otto, in 1906; and the assassination of his uncle Franz Ferdinand at Sarajevo in 1914.
Frederick Engels, Ernest Untermann, eds.
Of course, a positive growth rate might be taken as evidencethat a population is below its optimum. However, by anyreasonable standards, the most rapidly growing populations onearth today are (in general) the most miserable. This association(which need not be invariable) casts doubt on the optimisticassumption that the positive growth rate of a population isevidence that it has yet to reach its optimum.
in the Sumerian city-state of Lagash.
We want the maximum good per person; but what is good? To oneperson it is wilderness, to another it is ski lodges forthousands. To one it is estuaries to nourish ducks for hunters toshoot; to another it is factory land. Comparing one good withanother is, we usually say, impossible because goods areincommensurable. Incommensurables cannot be compared.
- Research papers and essays on the Nervous system.
The second reason springs directly from biological facts. Tolive, any organism must have a source of energy (for example,food). This energy is utilized for two purposes: mere maintenanceand work. For man maintenance of life requires about 1600kilocalories a day ("maintenance calories"). Anythingthat he does over and above merely staying alive will be definedas work, and is supported by "work calories" which hetakes in. Work calories are used not only for what we call workin common speech; they are also required for all forms ofenjoyment, from swimming and automobile racing to playing musicand writing poetry. If our goal is to maximize population it isobvious what we must do: We must make the work calories perperson approach as close to zero as possible. No gourmet meals,no vacations, no sports, no music, no literature, no art Ithink that everyone will grant, without argument or proof, thatmaximizing population does not maximize goods. Bentham's goal isimpossible.