Here is an overview of the process:

*The eighth edition handbook recommends including URLs when citing online sources. For more information, see the “Optional Elements” section below.

Culture and Imperialism. Knopf, 1994.

Putting all of the above together, you should have a first page that looks like the following:

Henley, Patricia. . MacMurray, 1999.

The same source may have been published on more than one date, such as an online version of an original source. For example, a television series might have aired on a broadcast network on one date, but released on Netflix on a different date. When the source has more than one date, it is sufficient to use the date that is most relevant to your use of it. If you’re unsure about which date to use, go with the date of the source’s original publication.

A website should be in italics:

In the following example, Mutant Enemy is the primary production company, and “Hush” was released in 1999. This is the way to create a general citation for a television episode.

Begin by opening in your word processor the document in which you want to add the header.

How to Cite the Purdue OWL in MLA

The seventh edition handbook required the city in which a publisher is located, but the eighth edition states that this is only necessary in particular instances, such as in a work published before 1900. Since pre-1900 works were usually associated with the city in which they were published, your documentation may substitute the city name for the publisher’s name.

MLA Format for Essays and Research Papers

If a source has been published on more than one date, the writer may want to include both dates if it will provide the reader with necessary or helpful information.

MLA Format for Essays and Research Papers ..

The eighth edition is designed to be as streamlined as possible. The author should include any information that helps readers easily identify the source, without including unnecessary information that may be distracting. The following is a list of select optional elements that should be part of a documented source at the writer’s discretion.

A periodical (journal, magazine, newspaper) article should be in quotation marks:

Erdrich, Louise. Love Medicine. Perennial-Harper,

With regard to the outstanding 2.5 million euros, De la Torre refers to the long-standing interest of bank Unicaja, already prominent in various artistic projects in Malaga, in sponsoring the cube. There are also moves to secure funds from a joint initiative between private French and Spanish businesses. In case Unicaja, currently undergoing a rigorous process of financial cutbacks, decides not to partake in the cultural scheme, the mayor claims to have a Plan B. He does not, for the moment, wish to discuss it.

Bagchi, Alaknanda.  Tulsa Studies in Women's Literature, vol. 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.

The Purdue OWL. Purdue U Writing Lab, 2016.

Alonso, Alvaro, and Julio A. Camargo. "Toxicity of Nitrite to Three Species of Freshwater Invertebrates." Environmental Toxicology, vol. 21, no. 1, 3 Feb. 2006, pp. 90-94. Wiley Online Library,

Kincaid, Jamaica. "Girl."  edited by Tobias Wolff, Vintage, 1994, pp. 306-07.

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When you cite an online source, the MLA Handbook recommends including a date of access on which you accessed the material, since an online work may change or move at any time.