OGHAM: See discussion under , above.

OPOYAZ: In early 20th-century Russia, the abbreviated name of the Society for the Study of Poetic Language--a group of young philogists and literary theorists who gathered in 1916 and who became instrumental in creating the Formalist School of Russian literary criticism (Harkins 267).

(ll. 1-85): (1-52); (53-85);

 I really enjoy how you compared Grendel to a child who needs his mother! I completely agree.

11. gave him gifts: a good king he!

I agree with you when you talk about how early on we do sympathize with Grendel. I also agree with the sentence, "He got a cruel, bloody death, but this death was not dealt without sympathy." I think that was one of the best sentences through your paper. The best paragraph in your paper is the last. You wonderfully summarized your thoughts.

12. To him an heir was afterward born,

I agree with your statement about how we sympathize with Grendel, however, I feel we do this out of self pity for him rather than understanding his situation. Also, I like your last paragraph about how Grendel found his inner self when confronted by Beowulf. It adds to your conclusion about how Grendel changed completely from start to finish of the novel.

13. a son in his halls, whom heaven sent
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18. Famed was this Beowulf [Beow]: far flew the boast of him,

Origenian doctrine is a type of . Origen based his idea on verses such as 1 John 2:2, which states that Christ took away the sins of the "whole" world, implying the mundus in toto, rather than the saints alone, and Timothy 2:4-2:6, which asserts God "wants all men to be saved and to come to a knowledge of the truth," and that Christ was a ransom or sacrifice for "all men." Origen argued that, since God is all powerful, his desires cannot be thwarted; therefore, it must come to pass eventually that every soul God creates will come to that salvation, as it makes no sense for a loving Father like God to punish his erring children forever rather than remedially and temporarily. Accordingly, Origen thought that after death, in some mysterious way, spirits could come to turn back to God after dying in sin. That might (depending on the particular heterodox theologian) come about through reincarnation (God giving the sinner a second chance to choose the right path) or alternatively, while Hell's fires are never quenched, God might remove the soul from those hellfires when it turned to sincere repentence. Saint Augustine of Hippo strongly opposed this doctrine, and the Fifth Ecumenical Council in 553 AD declared Origen's beliefs to be heretical.

20. So becomes it a youth to quit him well

21. with his father's friends, by fee and gift,

John Gardner wrote the timeless story Grendel in only twelve extraordinary chapters. Each chapter has a specific astrology sign and some signs are easier to recognize than others. Not only does Gardener use astrological signs to give us all a connection to Grendel, he also uses the astrological signs to portray his twelve main ideas.
The first sign in chapter one is Aries, the ram. The ram is explicitly mentioned in the first sentence of the first chapter. "The old ram stands looking down over rockslides, stupidly triumphant." (pg. 5) When Gardner wrote in each astrological sign, he gave everyone something to relate to. The traits connected to Aries are energetic, original, enthusiastic, competitive and many others. When Gardner writes that the ram looks triumphant he is connecting the competitiveness trait to the ram. Every person has a competitive nature. This is one way that Gardner ties the readers to the story with the very first sentence. Another example would be when the Bull attacks Grendel. The symbol for a Taurus is a bull. Traits connected to Taurus are determined, stubborn, persistent, and more. This is the first time that the readers truly feel sorry for Grendel. The bull is persistent in ramming both the tree and Grendel multiple times. Readers can connect to feeling persistence even if it's a negative feeling because of their pity for Grendel.
As the story progresses, we are introduced to more astrological signs. In chapter six, the virgin is the symbol of a Virgo and Gardner mentions a virgin on page 85. As Grendel leaves Unferth trapped he thinks to himself, "He was crying, only a boy, famous hero or not: a poor miserable virgin." (Pg 85) This sentence also leads into Gardner's main idea in chapter six; heroism. This fact becomes more obvious as Gardner continues."A hero is not afraid to face cruel death... You talk of heroism as noble language, dignity." Grendel thinks of heroism as something only in poetry and fantasy.
Gardner uses astrology to portray main ideas and to connect the readers to the story. Every chapter and its zodiac sign all intertwine to create the character that is Grendel.

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23. come warriors willing, should war draw nigh,

ONTOLOGY--The branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of existence: what things exist and in what ways they exist. This branch often contrasts with epistemology--the branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of knowledge--i.e., how we know something, in what ways we can know something, and what mental limitations prevent us from knowing certain things.