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The environment supports human life by providing the basic human needs, for example, food, shelter, clothes and love. However, human activities such as industrialization, agriculture, mining and finishing have ended up producing global warming, ozone layers depletion, loss of biodiversity, deforestation, soil erosion and water, air and land pollution (Jeong, 2000). Environmental degradation produced by human activities has reduced the ability of nature to provide the human basic needs. As result, human beings are fighting over the remaining scare resources in order to meet their basic human needs. As for Tanzania, environmental pollution, especially water and land pollution by Barrick Gold Corporation at North Mara has created tension between the mining company and the local communities. According to the local communities, more than 20 people and 1000 animals have died as a result of the mine-induced water and land pollution. Local people, especially young men continually invade the mine in order to steal gold rocks to meet their basic needs, which have been threatened by Barrick`s environmental pollution (John, 2010; Mwanahalisi, 2010).
the NSDAR, the state organizations, or individual DAR chapters.
Coupled with environmental degradation, Tanzania also faces a problem of population explosion. In the 21st century, population in Tanzania is predicted to double every 20 years in rural areas and every 10 years in urban years. Population explosion put pressure in the limited resources, for instance, land and water; hence causing conflicts. Similarly, population explosion sparks migration in areas deemed to be productive. For instance, massive migration of people in the Pangani River Basin has generated conflicts between the people and the conservationists (Mbonile, 2006). Large cities in Tanzania, especially Dar es Salaam are receiving large number migrants of youths from the rural areas. This has put stress in the existing infrastructures, for instance, hospitals and housing. As a result, Dar es Salaam is currently experiencing frequent violent acts like theft and robbery (Mmuya, 2000).
United Republic of Tanzania (1998)
This national American History Essay Contest was designed to promote the study of American history among our nation's youth. A record of assigned topics for this annual D.A.R. essay competition dates back to 1957.
United Republic of Tanzania (1998) The Mining Act
Individuals tend to identify themselves on the basis of their common history, culture and language. Human identities are not in themselves the cause of conflicts and wars, but politicians, especially in Africa tend to manipulate and politicize these identities in order to secure power (Jeong, 2000). The historical divide created by slavery and slave trade and colonialism have polarized the relation between Pemba and Unguja islands in Zanzibar, Tanzania. British colonial government capitalized the division created by slavery and slave trade by ruling Zanzibar through the Arabs (land owners) (Talbot, 2000). After the adoption of multiparty democracy in Tanzania in 1992, identities in Zanzibar were transcended in the struggle for power. For instance, Unguja supported the ruling party, Chama cha Mapinduzi (CCM), while Pemba turned out to support the major opposition party, Civil United Front (CUF). All the elections held in 1995, 2000 and 2005 were followed by violent conflicts with CUF rejecting the electoral results, and therefore declining to recognize the government. In 2001, January, identity polarization in Zanzibar claimed lives of more than 30 followers of CUF who demonstrated to oppose the 2000 electoral results. CUF demonstrators clashed with the government security officers (Mpangala and Lwehabura, 2006; Mwadini, 2010).