Critical and historical essays contributed to the Edinburgh review.
Critical and Historical Essays Contributed to the ..
For constructive thinking we must go to the other great leader of French thought, Rousseau, who contributed to the growth of freedom in a different way. He was a deist, but his deism, unlike that of Voltaire, was religious and emotional. He regarded Christianity with a sort of reverent scepticism. But his thought was revolutionary and repugnant to orthodoxy; it made against authority in every sphere; and it had an enormous influence. The clergy perhaps dreaded his theories more than the scoffs and negations of Voltaire. For some years he was a fugitive on the face of the earth. , his brilliant contribution to the theory of education, appeared in 1762. It contains some remarkable pages on religion, “the profession of faith of a Savoyard vicar,” in which the author’s deistic faith is strongly affirmed and revelation and theology rejected. The book was publicly burned in Paris and an order issued for Rousseau’s arrest. Forced by his friends to flee, he was debarred from returning to Geneva, for the government of that canton followed the example of Paris. He sought refuge in the canton of Bern and was ordered to quit. He then fled to the principality of Neufchâtel which belonged to Prussia. Frederick the Great, the one really tolerant ruler of the age, gave him protection, but he was persecuted and calumniated by the local clergy, who but for Frederick would have expelled him, and he went to England for a few months (1766), then returning to France, where he was left unmolested till his death. The religious views of Rousseau are only a minor point in his heretical speculations. It was by his daring social and political theories that he set the world on fire. His in which these theories were set forth was burned at Geneva. Though his principles will not stand criticism for a moment, and though his doctrine worked mischief by its extraordinary power of turning men into fanatics, yet it contributed to progress, by helping to discredit privilege and to establish the view that the object of a State is to secure the wellbeing of all its members.
Metaphilosophy, Contemporary | Internet Encyclopedia …
Histories of imperialism and capitalism have continually threatened not only indigenous populations around the world, but also environmental biodiversity through forms of economic, cultural, and geographical conquest. Postcolonial ecocriticism is an attempt to examine overlapping issues among histories of colonialism and environmental destruction. The phrase, however, creates a somewhat fraught distinction, because scholars within this field investigate much more than protecting the natural world and indigenous populations from oppression. In 2010 a series of influential books were published on the subject. provides one of the more compelling and earliest introductions to postcolonial ecocriticism; it underscores the complexity of joining these terms (i.e., postcolonial + ecocriticism) in specific histories and geographies. adds another dimension to the politics of colonialism by examining animals alongside environmental degradation. examines the relationship between globalized mass tourism and its ecological effects on sensitive ecosystems, which are often located in former colonies and exposed by writers. includes essays from a number of contributors to explore postcolonial narratives in different parts of the world. looks generally at the role of the global postcolonial writer as an activist responding to environmental destruction. furthers the view of the writer as an activist and argues that environmental damage occurs slowly over time and appears almost invisible, despite the violence ecological degradation causes the poor in the Global South. incorporates essays from well-established postcolonial scholars to address global examples of postcolonial ecocriticism. uses postcolonial writers to illustrate a how literature can fundamentally alter our consciousness.