Samuel Freeman, Justice and the Social Contract: Essays …
Rawls, John | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Social Contract TheoryOne of the most discussed elements of Rawls' view of justice as fairness is his "modeling" device known as the Original Position.
A Theory of Justice - Wikipedia
Contractarianism, which stems from the Hobbesian line of socialcontract thought, holds that persons are primarily self-interested,and that a rational assessment of the best strategy for attaining themaximization of their self-interest will lead them to act morally(where the moral norms are determined by the maximization of jointinterest) and to consent to governmental authority. Contractarianismargues that we each are motivated to accept morality “firstbecause we are vulnerable to the depredations of others, and secondbecause we can all benefit from cooperation with others”(Narveson 1988, 148). Contractualism, which stems from the Kantianline of social contract thought, holds that rationality requires thatwe respect persons, which in turn requires that moral principles besuch that they can be justified to each person. Thus, individuals arenot taken to be motivated by self-interest but rather by a commitmentto publicly justify the standards of morality to which each will beheld. Where Gauthier, Narveson, or economist James Buchanan are theparadigm Hobbesian contractarians, Rawls or Thomas Scanlon would bethe paradigm Kantian contractualists. The rest of this entry willspecifically pertain to the contractarian strain wherever the twodiverge.