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[Compare "lightness of character" in the paragraph above to"light-minded" in the first paragraph of this section. These labelsare peculiar and may be Cicero’s attempt to describe "separatedsubstances" – the technical term used by Aristotle and later by Aquinasfor angels. A light mind, or a separated substance, is much related to instinct,that is, to "the internal substance beholden to the external appearance ofthe species, present at birth." (Section 8.) The internal substance isseparated from "external factors," and while external factors mayinfluence our actions, they cannot control them, for that would be to negatefree will. (Section 13.) Consider the paragraph above which states that one must"take to separate a genuine from a speciousfriend." Here are all the key words: Reason, Care, separation, genuine andspecious. A light-minded flatterer is "specious" – from the Latinroot , which means "appearance." A distinction must bedrawn between angels which are unmoved movers and angels which are"fallen" and only an appearance. As far as selecting a friend,"We should … look out for simplicity, a social disposition, and asympathetic nature, moved by what moves us." (Section 18.) The substance ofany friendship is Virtue, and the command of Virtue is the unmoved movement ofangels. Consider the first sentence of this section: "Well, then, if it istrue that to give and receive advice – the former with freedom and yet withoutbitterness, the latter with patience and without irritation – is peculiarlyappropriate to genuine friendship…" (etc.). It may seem that this kind ofexchange between two friends is a reciprocation, but in truth it is asimultaneous movement of the inescapable "gravity" of affection. Thereis nothing to be exchanged but every inclination to be moved simultaneously bythe attraction of Virtue. To care for another person is, at the highest level,to respect the unmoved Nature of that person. It is the same as one’s ownunmoved nature! The extension of Virtue as Care is a channel or"minor" key of understanding by which a "major" movementtowards freedom, in the opposite direction, is enacted. In the same sentenceCicero renders "patience" as a quality to be applied to "advicereceived." This refers to receiving the advice of Care as the friendshipattains to Virtue. It may be that to attain to Virtue requires an act of faith,since Faith follows the natural course of the universe as a whole. The movementof Faith is fully in line with the development of Reason: both are drawn by thepower of Virtue. Care only enters the picture as the reflected light of theself, on the threshhold of the fullest expression of Reason and Nature. But allof this goes far beyond the peripheral and much more local context offlatterers, in which the light mind tends to amplify that which the deludedindividual most wants to hear or see: "Your servile flatterer alwaysexaggerates what his victim wishes to be put strongly." (Section 26.)Delusion is a close cousin of Discord, which is the changeableness of the mortalworld. Thus the light mind is a sort of fallen angel that has no stake in thetruth of the Self, and every claim to false appearances, without"principle, standing, and solidity." There is no Virtue in suchappearances, and the victim of the flatterer or power-monger is completelydevoid of "clear-sight." His Reason is completely lacking, and so,like a "short-sighted credulous old man," he is easily deceived.(Section 26.)]

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Cicero proposes, in , to follow second century B.C.

English byname TULLY Roman statesman, lawyer, scholar, and writer who vainly tried to uphold republican principles in the final civil wars that destroyed the republic of Rome.

He was hailed by Catulus as "father of his country." This was the climax of his career.
In winter 57-56 Cicero attempted unsuccessfully to estrange Pompey from Caesar.


To this extremely careful and skilful provision on the part of Nature many instances can be added from which it may be understood what great and special endowments have been bestowed upon men by the gods. In the first place they made them tall and upright, raised aloft from the ground, that they might be able, through their gaze being turned upon the sky, to obtain a knowledge of the divine existence. For men are formed from the earth, not as its inhabitants and occupants, but as spectators of the things above them in the sky, the spectacle of which is afforded to no other race of animate beings. The senses, again, which act as intermediaries and reporters, have been marvellously created and placed for necessary service in the head, as though in a citadel. Thus, the eyes, like scouts, hold the highest place, from which they may behold most, and so fulfil their function; the ears, since it is their duty to receive sound, which by itsnature mounts upward, have been rightly placed in the top part of the body; there is fitness also in the nostrils being high up, for all smell ascends, and it is not without reason that they have sought the neighbourhood of the mouth, for their judgment upon food and drink is a weighty one. Taste, again, since it was meant to appreciate the different kinds of things upon which we subsist, is resident in that part of the mouth where Nature has opened a passage for what is eaten and drunk. Touch, on the other hand, is distributed over the whole body alike, so that we can feel every impact, and every slightest impression both of cold and heat. Moreover, just as in a house the architect diverts from the eyes and nostrils of the master that which, as it flowed forth, would necessarily be to some extent offensive, so Nature has banished the corresponding function to a distance from the senses.

By the time Cicero returned to Rome, Pompey and Caesar were struggling for complete power.

In he speaks in general about justice and its opposite, injustice.

And what reason is there for our reverencing the gods out of admiration for a nature in which we see nothing excellent? As for the freedom from superstition, of which you are in the habit of boasting, that is easily attained when you have deprived the gods of all their power, unless, indeed, you think it possible that Diagoras or Theodorus, who absolutely denied their existence, should have been superstitious. I do not think myself that that could have been the case even with Protagoras, who was neither satisfied that they existed, nor that they did not exist. The truth is that the opinions of all these men do away not only with superstition, which involves an irrational fear of the gods, but also with religion, which consists in the pious worship of the same. And did not those who declared that the whole belief in immortal gods was manufactured by wise men for purposes of state, in order that those who could not be led to duty by reason might be led by religion, put an end altogether to all religion? How much of it did Prodicus of Ceos leave remaining, who said that it was the things which were serviceable to human life that had been regarded asgods? Are not those, moreover, without a vestige of it who tell us that brave, or famous, or powerful men attained after death to the rank of gods, and that it is these very men whom we are accustomed to worship, and pray to, and venerate? This theory was made most use of by Euhemerus, and his chief expounder and follower has been our own countryman Ennius. Now when Euhemerus proves the death and burial of the gods, does he seem to have established religion, or to have absolutely and wholly done away with it? I will not refer to Eleusis, that august and holy city,

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Diplomatic history doesn’t often lend itself to able story-telling, but Michael Doran happily provides an exception to that rule in (Free Press). It’s a tale with numerous lessons for today, a portrait of a president whose greatness involved a willingness to change his mind if reality proved previous assumptions mistaken, and a reminder of just how fractious the post-colonial Arab world has always been – and how poorly the Arabs have been served by their leaders.