Essay on world war causes and effects writinggroups web fc com

The Iberian Peninsula had been the site of wars for several centuries by the , and the Christian/Islamic animosity there was pronounced; enslaving captured opponents was standard practice. Portugal began the maritime innovations that would see them seize the spice trade from their Islamic rivals. is closely associated with the rise of Portuguese maritime knowledge and practice. How responsible Henry was for Portugal’s maritime prowess has long been debated, but what is not debatable is that Portugal began developing the necessary knowledge and skills for accomplishing an unprecedented feat: sailing the world’s oceans. Until that time, only the Indian Ocean was regularly traveled because of its relatively gentle and predictable nature. Not until Europe’s rise were the Pacific, Atlantic, Arctic, and Antarctic oceans regularly traveled. sailors , unsuccessfully, and even settled some Atlantic islands, but Portugal was humanity’s first successful practitioner of transoceanic navigation. Many , and sailed down the Atlantic Coast of Africa and across the Atlantic. The Portuguese began , , and in 1434, Portugal became the first European power to on the African coast.

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world war essay causes and effect

Cause and Effect on World War 1 Essay - 743 Words | …

In 63 BCE, a conspiracy to overthrow the Republic was exposed by , and in 60 BCE the was formed and its three members, including , all came to violent ends; then the Roman civil wars began in earnest. The Second Triumvirate was formed in 43 BCE, and included and , of fame. After Augustus defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra’s fleet in the in 31 BCE, the Roman Republic ended and Rome became an empire, the greatest that humanity has known. At its height, it governed a quarter of humanity. From the to the , Rome as a republic or empire lasted for nearly two millennia. Its impact on Western Civilization, and hence the world, has been incalculable. There are far too many important lessons to be learned from the Roman experience than this essay can explore, but I will try to keep the lessons within this essay’s theme and purpose, which is humanity’s relationship to energy and our collective future.

Essay about Cause and Effect on World War 1 - 750 …

I know of no more informative contrast between industrial and preindustrial economies than comparing the USA’s North and South on the eve of its Civil War. The North had a vibrant, industrializing economy that quickly became history’s greatest, with its labor nominally free, and the South had a relatively moribund economy based on slave labor. The North used its industrial capacity to grind down the South in a war of attrition, just as . Superior industrial capacity, which is rooted in energy supplies, has won all major wars during the past two centuries. World War I ended when the , and much of the war was devoted to cutting off the other belligerents’ oil supplies. When Germany surrendered, it had one day’s worth of fuel. Japan attacked Pearl Harbor in 1941 only after the , and Germany lost World War II after its , and the Nazis simply ran out of fuel. Cutting off access to hydrocarbons, oil in particular, was the industrial equivalent of starving out the enemy in a siege, or how continually tried to cut off the other's access to wood. Oil has been humanity’s , and explains imperial meddling and warfare in the Middle East. All other factors are irrelevant or of extremely minor importance and are often promoted in an attempt to deceive uninformed observers such as the American public; proximate causes, if not entirely fictional to begin with, in those delusion-inducing analyses.

Causes and effects of world war 1 essay
Jun 26, 2007 · Causes of World War One Essay Non-Fiction ..

FREE Cause of World War 1 Essay - ExampleEssays

The immediate cause of the World War I was the June 28, 1914 assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, by Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb citizen of Austria-Hungary and member of the Black Hand.

Causes and effects of world war 1 essay – The Friary School

The Causes and Effects of World War I ..

France, they were to remain - at the very least - benevolently neutral. This alliance, unlike others, endured until war in 1914. It was this clause that Austria-Hungary invoked in calling Germany to her aid against Russian support for Serbia (who in turn was protected by treaty with Russia). Two years after Germany and Austria-Hungary concluded their agreement, Italy was brought into the fold with the signing of the in 1881. Under the provisions of this treaty, Germany and Austria-Hungary promised to assist Italy if she were attacked by France, and vice versa: Italy was bound to lend aid to Germany or Austria-Hungary if France declared war against either. Additionally, should any signatory find itself at war with two powers (or more), the other two were to provide military assistance. Finally, should any of the three determine to launch a 'preventative' war (a euphemism if ever there was one), the others would remain neutral. One of the chief aims of the Triple Alliance was to prevent Italy from declaring war against Austria-Hungary, towards whom the Italians were in dispute over territorial matters. In the event the Triple Alliance was essentially meaningless, for Italy subsequently negotiated a secret treaty with France, under which Italy would remain neutral should Germany attack France - which in the event transpired. In 1914 Italy declared that Germany's war against France was an 'aggressive' one and so . A year later, in 1915, Italy did , as an ally of Britain, France and Russia. Austria-Hungary signed an alliance with Romania in 1883, negotiated by Germany, although in the event Romania - after starting World War One as a neutral - eventually ; as such Austria-Hungary's treaty with Romania was of no actual significance. Potentially of greater importance - although it was allowed to lapse three years after its signature - Bismarck, in 1887, agreed to a so-called with Russia. This document stated that both powers would remain neutral if either were involved in a war with a third (be it offensive or defensive). However, should that third power transpire to be France, Russia would not be obliged to provide assistance to Germany (as was the case of Germany if Russia found itself at war with Austria-Hungary). Bismarck's intention was to avoid the possibility of a two-front war against both France and Russia. A decidedly tangled mesh of alliances; but the Russian Tsar, , allowed the Reinsurance Treaty to lapse in 1890 (the same year the new German Kaiser, , brought about the dismissal of his veteran Chancellor, Bismarck). The year after the Reinsurance Treaty lapsed Russia allied itself with France. Both powers agreed to consult with the other should either find itself at war with any other nation, or if indeed the stability of Europe was threatened. This rather loosely worded agreement was solidified in 1892 with the , aimed specifically at counteracting the potential threat posed by the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. In short, should France or Russia be attacked by one of the Triple Alliance signatories - or even should a Triple Alliance power mobilise against either (where to mobilise meant simply placing a nation on a war footing preparatory to the declaration of hostilities), the other power would provide military assistance. Meanwhile, Britain was awaking to the emergence of Germany as a great European power - and a colonial power at that. Kaiser Wilhelm's successor, Wilhelm II, proved far more ambitious in establishing "a place in the sun" for Germany. With the effective dismissal of Bismarck the new Kaiser was determined to establish Germany as a great colonial power in the pacific and, most notably, in Africa. Wilhelm, encouraged by naval minister , embarked upon a massive shipbuilding exercise intended to produce a naval fleet the equal of Britain's, unarguably by far and away the world's largest. Britain, at that time the greatest power of all, took note. In the early years of the twentieth century, in 1902, she agreed a , aimed squarely at limiting German colonial gains in the east. She also responded by commissioning a build-up in her own naval strength, determined to outstrip Germany. In this she succeeded, building in just 14 months - a record - the enormous battleship, completed in December 1906. By the time war was declared in 1914 Germany could muster 29 battleships, Britain 49. Despite her success in the naval race, Germany's ambitions succeeded at the very least in pulling Britain into the European alliance system - and, it has been argued, brought war that much closer. Two years later Britain signed the with France. This 1904 agreement finally resolved numerous leftover colonial squabbles. More significantly, although it did not commit either to the other's military aid in time of war, it did offer closer diplomatic co-operation generally. Three years on, in 1907, Russia formed what became known as the Triple Entente (which lasted until World War One) by signing an agreement with Britain, the . Together the two agreements formed the three-fold alliance that lasted and effectively bound each to the other right up till the outbreak of world war just seven years later. Again, although the two Entente agreements were not militarily binding in any way, they did place a "moral obligation" upon the signatories to aid each other in time of war. It was chiefly this moral obligation that drew Britain into the war in defence of France, although the British pretext was actually the terms of the largely forgotten that committed the British to defend Belgian neutrality (discarded by the Germans as in 1914, when they asked Britain to ignore it). In 1912 Britain and France did however conclude a military agreement, the Anglo-French Naval Convention, which promised British protection of France's coastline from German naval attack, and French defence of the Suez Canal. Such were the alliances between the major continental players. There were other, smaller alliances too - such as Russia's pledge to protect Serbia, and Britain's agreement to defend Belgian neutrality - and each served its part in drawing each nation into the coming great war. In the interim however, there were a number of 'minor' conflicts that helped to stir emotions in the years immediately preceding 1914, and which gave certain nations more stake than others in entering the world war. Ever since Russia declined Japan's offer in 1903 for each to recognise the other's interests in Manchuria and Korea, trouble was looming. The Japanese launched a successful attack upon Russian warships in Korea, at Inchon, and in Port Arthur, China. This was followed by a land invasion of both disputed territories of Korea and Manchuria in 1904.

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In the historical period, when technologically advanced humans encountered less advanced ones, there was cultural and genetic interchange, but in the end, the technologically advanced peoples . If any place on Earth could have been used as an illustration of the climate change hypothesis for the megafauna extinctions, ice age Europe would have been it. Ice sheets extended so far southward that Neanderthals lived in relatively few refugia, but I highly doubt that it caused their extinction. Neanderthals lived for at least 300,000 years and survived radical climate changes just fine. Human-agency skeptics have invoked unusually violent climate changes that coincidentally appeared when behaviorally advanced humans arrived around the world, but that seems to be grasping at straws. Again, there is nothing climatically unique about the past 60,000 years, , so invoking climate-change effects for humans and animals that weathered the ice age’s vagaries just fine seems to be a huge conjecture that may be politically motivated. Human-agency skeptics have crafted different kinds of climate explanations for each major extinction, such as drying in Australia, getting colder and dryer in Europe, or getting when most of the extinctions happened. At , climate was a proximate cause, not the ultimate one. The ultimate one was people virtually every time.