*Keloid scars on a woman’s back. (HPMM)

Persons who suffered thermal burns within 1.0 to 2.0 kilometers of ground zero suffered serious flame and contact burns in addition to moderate flash burns, which resulted in marked scar formation.

*Close-up of previous photo. (HPMM)

 *Figure 12. Cumulative death rate of atomic bomb victims. (, p. 86. Fig. 12)

*Days of development of keloids. (, 122. Table 20)

A Nagasaki survey of 98 pregnant women exposed at a distance of 2.0 km from ground zero and 113 pregnant women exposed at 4.0 and 5.0 km from ground zero, showed a high percentage of neonatal and infantile deaths for those exposed within a 2.0 km range, as well as signs of acute radiation illness such as loss of hair, bleeding tendency, and inner mouth lesions. Mental retardation was noted in 25% of newborn survivors.

*Clinical changes of keloids. , 122. Table 21)

Although chromosome aberrations increased with higher radiation doses, frequency of aberrations was consistently high at all dose ranges. As late as 1985, chromosomal aberrations in somatic (body) cells persisted among exposed survivors.

—secondary injuries sustained from flying debris, burial under rubble, and blast compression

an atomic bomb over the city of Hiroshima, Japan

While casualty rates exceeded death rates, they both were highest near ground zero and declined at similar rates by increasing distance from ground zero. But the cumulative death rates (%) in both cities rose dramatically during the first two weeks, then leveled off in subsequent weeks.

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Acute stages ran overall from initial exposure to 4th month, with both primary and secondary thermal burns. Numerous A-bomb casualties (deaths) occurred almost simultaneously with explosion, but both injury and mortality rates fell with increased distanced.

The Hiroshima A-bomb blast, photographed by the U.S

* Exposed skin of a woman seared by intense heat was blown away by fierce wave (but white blouse deflected the intense heat). Most of those suffering severe burns over more than 20% of their bodies died on the spot or a short time later. ()

Immediate disorientation and coma occur with 10,000 rads, and death follows within hours.

and the successful bombing with ..

The majority of thermal injuries within 2.0–3.0 km of ground zero were flash burns that left simple, thin scars at first. But the flash-burn scars altered markedly by thickening to become keloids after 3 to 4 months.

*Frequency of A-bomb cataracts in Hiroshima victims exposed in infancy. (, 208)

After the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, ..

Chromosomes are present in constant numbers in the nuclei of cells, and can be seen as visible entities during cell division. The count in humans is a constant 46. Chromosome aberrations were first noted in exposed survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1960. Subsequent systematic surveys revealed a high frequency of aberrations in blood cells and lymphocytes in fetuses exposed to large radiation doses in utero (in the womb) or soon after birth.

*Crude incidence of leukemia among A-bomb survivors and controls, in 1950-1971 sample. (, 130).

Hiroshima and Nagasaki Essay - Free Papers and Essays …

Most persons close to ground zero who received high radiation dosages died immediately or during the first day. One-third of all fatalities occurred by the 4th day; two-thirds by the 10th day; and 90% by the end of three weeks.