- Organisation der Lehre des Instituts

To decode the function and molecular recognition of several recently discovered cytosine derivatives in the human genome – 5‐hydroxymethylcytosine, 5‐formylcytosine, and 5‐carboxylcytosine – a detailed understanding of their effects on the structural, chemical, and biophysical properties of DNA is essential. Here, we review recent literature in this area, with particular emphasis on features that have been proposed to enable the specific recognition of modified cytosine bases by DNA‐binding proteins. These include electronic factors, modulation of base‐pair stability, flexibility, and radical changes ...

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- Definition der Lernziele in der Biochemie

- Auswertung der Lehrevaluation

The human spindle and kinetochore associated (Ska) complex is required for proper mitotic progression. Extensive studies have demonstrated its important functions in both stable kinetochore‐microtubule interactions and spindle checkpoint silencing. We suggest a model to explain how various Ska functions might be fulfilled by distinct pools of Ska at kinetochores. The Ndc80‐loop pool of Ska is recruited by the Ndc80 loop, or together with some of its flanking sequences, and the recruitment is also dependent on Cdk1‐mediated Ska3 phosphorylation. This pool seems to play a more important role in silencing the spindle ch...

- Fortbildung Instituts-interner Dozenten

Conformational changes of proteins and other biomolecules play a fundamental role in their functional mechanism. Single pair Förster resonance energy transfer (spFRET) offers the possibility to detect these conformational changes and dynamics, and to characterize their underlying kinetics. Using spFRET on microscopes with different modes of detection, dynamic timescales ranging from nanoseconds to seconds can be quantified. Confocal microscopy can be used as a means to analyze dynamics in the range of nanoseconds to milliseconds, while total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy offers information about c...

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1, 0 [Prospects & Overviews] BioEssays recommends ..

Different disciplines and areas of practice have often had distinct interests in fathers and children. Applied social services may be concerned with the impacts of father absence on children’s social development (including juvenile delinquency and engagement in criminal activities), on the reasons why men do or do not provide child support, or the role of father figures in child physical abuse. Other policy-oriented scholars may be interested in socially engineering more invested fathers with an eye toward enhancing child outcomes, such as increased high school graduation rates. Sociologists may be primarily concerned with socioeconomic and ethnic differences in father-child dynamics within Western countries. Evolutionary-minded scholars seek to understand the historical and adaptive bases of paternal behaviour and child development, including with respect to other animals. Anthropologists may pay more attention to the role of fathers in non-Western societies.

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While some scholars have decried how important two-parent families are to children’s emotional and behavioural regulation,8 others have suggested fathers’ services are quite substitutable and without much measurable impact.9 Such polarized views illustrate the challenges of specifying the key impacts of fathers on children, when and why they emerge, and how discussions can unfold without overly simplifying the complicated realities witnessed firsthand by service providers and scholars of interdisciplinary backgrounds and interests.

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What are the impacts of fathers on children?

Unstable Accumulating Activator models for cellular size control propose an activator that accumulates in a size‐dependent manner and triggers cell cycle progression once it has reached a certain threshold. Having a short half life makes such an activator responsive to changes in cell size and makes specific predictions for how cells respond to perturbation. In particular, it explains the curious phenomenon of excess mitotic delay. Excess mitotic delay, first observed in Tetrahymena in the '50s, is a phenomenon in which a pulse of protein synthesis inhibition causes a delay in mitotic entry that is longer than the pulse ...

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What are the mechanisms by which fathers impact children?

The impacts of fathers on children can begin before birth (see11). Fathers may have heritable physiological impacts on their children via genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that begin to emerge shortly after conception12 and which may influence maternal investment during pregnancy.13 Older fathers tend to transmit more mutations to their offspring,14 while early childhood paternal stressors predict children’s adolescent gene methylation patterns (a type of chemical modification of DNA).15