Aristotle (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Aristotle regards rhetoric and the arts as belonging to the productivesciences. As a family, these differ from the practical sciencesof ethics and politics, which concern human conduct, and from thetheoretical sciences, which aim at truth for its own sake. Because they are concerned with the creation of human products broadlyconceived, the productive sciences include activities with obvious,artefactual products like ships and buildings, but also agriculture andmedicine, and even, more nebulously, rhetoric, which aims at theproduction of persuasive speech (Rhet. 1355b26; cf.Top. 149b5), and tragedy, which aims atthe production of edifying drama (Poet.1448b16–17). If we bear in mind that Aristotleapproaches all these activities within the broader context of histeleological explanatory framework, then at least some of the highlypolemicized interpretative difficulties which have grown up around hisworks in this area, particularly the Poetics, may be sharplydelimited.

Aristotle and Happiness - The Pursuit of Happiness

Aristotle (384–322 B.C.E.) numbers among the greatest philosophers of all time

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In his later writings on technology, which mainly concern us in this essay, Heidegger draws attention to technology’s place in bringing about our decline by constricting our experience of things as they are. He argues that we now view nature, and increasingly human beings too, only technologically — that is, we see nature and people only as raw material for technical operations. Heidegger seeks to illuminate this phenomenon and to find a way of thinking by which we might be saved from its controlling power, to which, he believes, modern civilization both in the communist East and the democratic West has been shackled. We might escape this bondage, Heidegger argues, not by rejecting technology, but by perceiving its danger.

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Aristotle (384–322 B.C.E.) numbers among the greatestphilosophers of all time. Judged solely in terms of his philosophicalinfluence, only Plato is his peer: Aristotle’s works shaped centuriesof philosophy from Late Antiquity through the Renaissance, and eventoday continue to be studied with keen, non-antiquarian interest. Aprodigious researcher and writer, Aristotle left a great body of work,perhaps numbering as many as two-hundred treatises, from whichapproximately thirty-one survive.[] His extant writings span a wide range ofdisciplines, from logic, metaphysics and philosophy of mind, throughethics, political theory, aesthetics and rhetoric, and into suchprimarily non-philosophical fields as empirical biology, where heexcelled at detailed plant and animal observation and description. In all these areas, Aristotle’s theories have providedillumination, met with resistance, sparked debate, and generallystimulated the sustained interest of an abiding readership.

23/09/2014 · Aristotle writes in his essay politics, “but justice is the bond of men in states, for the administration of justice, which is the determination of what.
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Even if we now regard it as commonplace that his logic is but afraction of the logic we know and use, Aristotle’s accomplishmentwas so encompassing that no less a figure than Kant, writing over twomillennia after the appearance of Aristotle’s treatises on logic,found it easy to offer an appropriately laudatory judgment: ‘Thatfrom the earliest times logic has traveled a secure course can be seenfrom the fact that since the time of Aristotle it has not had to go asingle step backwards…What is further remarkable about logic isthat until now it has also been unable to take a single step forward,and therefore seems to all appearance to be finished andcomplete’ (Critique of Pure Reason B vii).

19/08/2011 · UPDATE: this post won the 2011 3QD Politics and Social Sciences Prize

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In the circles where the antagonism of Judaism and Hellenism was known and understood, Aristotle was reported by tradition to have said: "I do not deny the revelation of the Jews, seeing that I am not acquainted with it; I am occupied with human knowledge only and not with divine" (Judah ha-Levi, "Cuzari," iv. 13; v. 14). But when Aristotelianism became harmonized with Judaism by Maimonides, it was an easy step to make Aristotle himself a Jew. Joseph b. Shem-Ṭob assures his reader that he had seen it written in an old book that Aristotle at the end of his life had become a proselyte ("ger zedeḳ"). The reputed statement of Clear-chus is repeated by Abraham Bibago in the guise of the information that Aristotle was a Jew of the tribe of Benjamin, born in Jerusalem, and belonging to the family of Kolaiah (Neh. xi. 7). As authority for it Eusebius is cited, who, however, has merely the above statement of Josephus.

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Aristotle’s influence is difficult to overestimate. Afterhis death, his school, the Lyceum, carried on for some period of time,though precisely how long is unclear. In the century immediatelyafter his death, Aristotle’s works seem to have fallen out ofcirculation; they reappear in the first century B.C.E., after which timethey began to be disseminated, at first narrowly, but then much morebroadly. They eventually came to form the backbone of some sevencenturies of philosophy, in the form of the , much of it original philosophy carried on ina broadly Aristotelian framework. They also played a verysignificant, if subordinate role, in the Neoplatonic philosophy of and . Thereafter, from the sixth through the twelfth centuries, although thebulk of Aristotle’s writings were lost to the West, they receivedextensive consideration in , and in Arabic Philosophy, where Aristotle was soprominent that be became known simply as The First Teacher (seethe entry on the ). In this tradition, the notably rigorous and illuminating commentaries ofAvicenna and Averroes interpreted and developed Aristotle’s viewsin striking ways. These commentaries in turn proved exceedinglyinfluential in the earliest reception of the Aristotelian corpus intothe Latin West in the twelfth century.