Anti-Federalist Papers: Brutus #1 - Constitution Society

From the 1830's a certain sympathy with the idea of a more politically integrated "Italia" was increasingly exhibited by members of the aristocracy and by members of the more affluent artisan, middle and professional classes in the various states of the Italian peninsula.

I 18 October 1787 To the Citizens of the State of New-York

While in England, she met the king and queen and other members of the English aristocracy.

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China's “Four Great Inventions”, , , the and the , are often trumpeted as the hallmarks of its civilisation. But these fruits of Chinese ingenuity are in many ways peripheral to the historical development of Chinese civilisation, and to Chinese society today. Gunpowder may have been discovered in China; but it was chiefly used for fireworks; the value of the compass was squandered by the insularity of the government and its failure to capitalise on 's explorations. Paper and the printing press were remarkable developments, but were really just perfections of technology already in use in various parts of the world from a very early age; papyrus or vellum,or the scriptoria of monasteries.

Chinese Imperial Examination System

The most truly unique aspect of Chinese culture - and the one with the most powerful legacy - is the examination system with which the Son of Heaven'sempire was staffed with civil servants over the best part of two millennia. The Imperial examinations represented a remarkable attempt to create an aristocracy of learning, which in itself represent a remarkable advance over the warrior and hereditary aristocracies that dominated in the rest of the world. The Chinese examination system, archaic, laborious and daunting as it may have been, was nevertheless, was a glorious attempt at intellectual meritocracy.

A secondary concern is  and the proprieties of aristocratic courtship--especially the consequences of arranged marriage and adultery.

Southern Comfort | by James M. McPherson | The New …

Aristocracy-by-examination had far-reaching consequences. A high degree of national stability was ensured despite changes of emperor and dynasty because the civil service, fuelled by the exam system, could continue independently of the imperial regime. Even China's foreign conquerors, the Mongols and the Manchu, realised the benefits of the examination system. Despite denigrating Han Chinese scholars as the “Stinking Ninth” in their social ranking, the Mongols of the retained the system. The Manchu tribesmen who captured Beijing in 1644 to found the restored the civil service examinations only two years later, and although they excluded Han Chinese from the highest echelons of the Civil Service, they clearly recognised the adhesive value of the exams in binding the Han intelligentsia to the Qing regime.

Finnegans Wake: What It' s All About - METAPORTAL

Night Ferry to Death by Patricia Moyes | LibraryThingA mystery with a little bit of everything: characters whose personalities are a little more fleshed out; stolen diamonds; aristocracy, a nice cast of characters fromMystery Women, Volume One (Revised)Emmy was not involved n The precipitating event in Night Ferry to Death (Holt, Women: An Encyclopedia ofLeading Women Characters in Mystery FictionNight Ferry to Death by Patricia Moyes — Reviews, DiscussionSusan said: Night Ferry to Death by Patricia Moyes is the 18th book of the The plot is full of coincidences and red herrings and ends with the obligatory

This is an article taken from our China in Focus magazine (2002) written by Justin Crozier

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Undoubtedly, success in the examinations was easier for the well-off. In the late Qing period in particular, corruption was widespread; examiners could be bribed, and early stages of the exam process could be skipped for a fee. Tutors, books and brushes all cost money, so poor candidates were at a disadvantage even during periods when bribery was frowned upon. Despite this, many poor scholars did succeed in their ambitions. During the Qing period, over a third of jinshi degree holders came from families with little or no educational background. Nor was the system biased towards the inhabitants of the capital. Degrees were awarded to scholars from throughout China; indeed the provinces of and boasted the greatest number of jinshi graduates.

Swift's Ireland was a country that had been effectively controlled by England for nearly 500 years

Where Do Bad Ideas Come From? – Foreign Policy

The third phase is democratic, and in it we observe a certain debasement: our demagogues are feeble parodies of aristocracy and certainly less than gods.

The Negro race, like all races, is going to be saved by its exceptional men

Literary Terms and Definitions: R - Carson-Newman …

The belief that "Italia" was a desirable possibility can be associated with the change in perspectives that many people, particularly from the more affluent artisan, middle and minor aristocratic classes, underwent after the American and French revolutions away from an acceptance of more purely dynastic patterns of sovereignty and towards aspiration towards "liberal" constitutional, and possibly even overtly republican or national notions of sovereignty.