Descartes’ Arguments For Dualism - Purdue University

In any case, whether of value or not,these are MY personal "Arguments for the Existence of God"!Also, see:

The individual articles presented here were generally first publishedin the early 1980s.

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Thus,the Divisibility Argument cannot serve as independent support for dualism.

The will look at a different kind of argument for dualism.

Let us now apply this thought to conscious subjects. Suppose that agiven human individual had had origins different from those which he infact had such that whether that difference affected who he waswas not obvious to intuition. What would count as such a case might bea matter of controversy, but there must be one. Perhaps it is unclearwhether, if there had been a counterpart to Jones' body from the sameegg but a different though genetically identical sperm from the samefather, the person there embodied would have been Jones. Somephilosophers might regard it as obvious that sameness of sperm isessential to the identity of a human body and to personal identity. Inthat case imagine a counterpart sperm in which some of the molecules inthe sperm are different; would that be the same sperm? If one pursuesthe matter far enough there will be indeterminacy which will infectthat of the resulting body. There must therefore be some differencesuch that neither natural language nor intuition tells us whether thedifference alters the identity of the human body; a point, that is,where the question of whether we have the same body is not a matter offact.

Some Popular Arguments for Dualism

Physical objects are spatio-temporal, and bear spatio-temporal andcausal relations to each other. Mental states seem to have causalpowers, but they also possess the mysterious property of intentionality—being about other things—including things like Zeus and the square root of minus one, which do not exist. No merephysical thing could be said to be, in a literal sense,‘about’ something else. The nature of the mental is bothqueer and elusive. In Ryle's deliberately abusive phrase, the mind, asthe dualist conceives of it, is a ‘ghost in a machine’.Ghosts are mysterious and unintelligible: machines are composed ofidentifiable parts and work on intelligible principles. But thiscontrast holds only if we stick to a Newtonian and common-sense view ofthe material. Think instead of energy and force-fields in a space-timethat possesses none of the properties that our senses seem to reveal:on this conception, we seem to be able to attribute to matter nothingbeyond an abstruse mathematical structure. Whilst the material world,because of its mathematicalisation, forms a tighter abstract systemthan mind, the sensible properties that figure as the objects of mentalstates constitute the only intelligible content for any concretepicture of the world that we can devise. Perhaps the world within theexperiencing mind is, once one considers it properly, no more—or even less—queer than the world outside it.

Research  and essay writing, free essay topics, sample works Argument Of Dualism
This, also known as the argument from introspection, is the first of the several arguments for dualism outlined by Churchland (1988 p.13).

philosophical arguments, the argument for substance dualism can be ..

The more modern versions of dualism have their origin in Descartes'Meditations, and in the debate that was consequent uponDescartes' theory. Descartes was a substance dualist. Hebelieved that there were two kinds of substance: matter, of which theessential property is that it is spatially extended; and mind, ofwhich the essential property is that it thinks. Descartes' conceptionof the relation between mind and body was quite different from thatheld in the Aristotelian tradition. For Aristotle, there is no exactscience of matter. How matter behaves is essentially affected by theform that is in it. You cannot combine just any matter with any form—you cannot make a knife out of butter, nor a human being outof paper—so the nature of the matter is a necessary conditionfor the nature of the substance. But the nature of the substance doesnot follow from the nature of its matter alone: there is no‘bottom up’ account of substances. Matter is adeterminable made determinate by form. This was how Aristotle thoughtthat he was able to explain the connection of soul to body: aparticular soul exists as the organizing principle in a particularparcel of matter.

There is an argument, which has roots in Descartes (MeditationVI), which is a modal argument for dualism. One might put it asfollows:

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Barry believes that one virtue of his theory is that it makes sense ofthe mirror thesis: that evil people are the perverse mirror images ofmoral saints (Barry 2009; Haybron 2002b, McGinn 1997, and Steiner 2002also accept versions of the mirror thesis). According to Barry moralsaints are the mirror images of evil people in the sense thatthey possess extremely virtuous states of character, i.e., the verybest virtues, such as justice and compassion, to an extreme degree.(See Russell 2010 for an argument against the mirror thesis.)

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Argument Of Dualism. Essays on Literary Works

One category of arguments for dualism is constituted by the standardobjections against physicalism. Prime examples are those based on theexistence of qualia, the most important of which is the so-called‘knowledge argument’. Because this argument has its ownentry (see the entry ), I shall deal relatively briefly with it here. One should bear inmind, however, that all arguments against physicalism are alsoarguments for the irreducible and hence immaterial nature of the mindand, given the existence of the material world, are thus argumentsfor dualism.