Should Animals be Used for Scientific Research? Essay | …

All in all, it can be said that using animals for medicalresearch is ethical a long as it contributes to scientific development andhelps scientists find ways to improve human health. And this practice is onlyacceptable on the condition that necessary pains are taken and animals aretreated humanely.

Should animals be used for research

Should Animals be Used for Research

Should Animals be Used for Scientific Research

From about 32 kya to 22 kya, prevailed in Europe. That culture produced the and art such as the . By 20 kya, . But as far as human expansion is concerned, the Gravettian (and related cultures) are most notorious as mammoth hunters extraordinaire for those that lived on the near the ice sheets. To , they could not swim to Sahul, but flourished everywhere else they could get to. At , they were the ultimate hunter-gatherer kill. Also, near the ice sheets, meat could be stored in the ground. Cro-Magnons did just that, and that “freezer” full of meat led to the first seasonally sedentary humans. It long predated the Domestication Revolution when people could be sedentary year-round, but while the megafauna lasted, the first signs of what came later appeared as Cro-Magnons created villages around frozen mammoth meat. Gravettians hunted along migration routes and set traps and ambushes for mammoths. For thousands of years, mammoths were the primary focus of Gravettian hunters, and many scientists believe that humans at least . Gravettians probably used the bow and arrow, and using poisoned arrows on mammoths would have been child’s play, not a hazardous undertaking. They also tended to focus on the easy meat: the young, relatively defenseless, tender mammoths. Killing the offspring alone would have driven the slowly reproducing mammoths to extinction, and as the interglacial period began around 15 kya, there would have been new pressures on mammoths. One of them was that fewer mammoths meant that they were not terraforming their environments like they used to, and the warming climate probably reduced their range. For a mammoth facing humans, there was literally no place to hide (except maybe in the living room), and there is little reason to think that hunters would have eased up when mammoth numbers dwindled. If anything, their efforts would have to get the last ones, as they competed and fought over the final mammoths. In one lifetime or even several, the changes would have been barely noticeable, if at all. There was simply no way out for mammoths, and they went extinct south of the European ice sheets under the ministrations of Cro-Magnon hunters. More evidence of their fate is some mammoths surviving in refugia: islands where humans did not arrive until thousands of years later. mammoths survived on in the chain off of Alaska until less than six kya, and went extinct when humans arrived. Several hundred apparently full-sized mammoths survived on near Siberia and went extinct less than five kya, when humans arrived. In today's France and Spain, Gravettians also semi-settled along the migration routes of reindeer and red deer. From Spain across Europe, into today's Russia, Gravettians hunted migrating herds, and not only the mammoth was driven to extinction, but also the wooly rhino, the Irish elk, the musk ox, and steppe bison were driven to extinction as the ice sheets retreated. Neanderthals had been ambush hunting in similar fashion, and those animals, like the African megafauna, grew wary of humans, and killing those animals probably took planning and guile.

Should animals be used for research essay - …

What human-agency skeptics have ignored or argued around are unique features of the megafauna that went extinct the humans that preyed on them, while they examined minutia. ever before humans arrived. As , African elephants help create the biomes they live in, as terraforming agents. They were far from idle browsers and grazers, but had outsized impacts on the vegetation, soils, and geological features such as water holes. Dinosaurs may have had similar biome impacts, and it was probably a feature of that large herbivore guild. Scientists have been finding plenty of evidence that vegetation changes that human-agency skeptics attribute to climate change may well be largely the of the guild’s disappearance, not a cause. Researchers in Africa have also discovered that changes wrought by elephants created biomes dependent on elephant management. When elephants disappeared, so did the biomes that they created, which is why smaller species could also disappear when the large herbivore guild vanished. Although Australia was the only non-Antarctic continent without proboscideans 50 kya, and its guilds were comprised of somewhat smaller animals, probably reflecting inherent differences between placental and marsupial mammals, Australia's large herbivores probably had similar biome impacts.

Should animals be used for scientific research ..
Should animals be used for scientific research

animals may be used for experimental research

Pasteur ventured into outright human experimentation and used his rabies treatment on humans before he had used it on animals. His private notebooks yielded that finding, but it comes as no surprise to those who have read a letter that Pasteur wrote to the emperor of Brazil. In 1884, Pasteur wrote that people condemned to death should become subjects of human experiments and given the option on the eve of their planned executions. The choice presented would be execution or becoming subjects for rabies vaccine testing. Pasteur predicted that the condemned would all consent to becoming experimental subjects, as a “person condemned to death only fears death.” Pasteur performed his experiments on his patients after he wrote his letter to the Brazilian emperor. Patrice Debré, who authored a sympathetic biography of Pasteur, wrote that one could not read Pasteur’s letter to the emperor without thinking of the Nazis’ death-camp experiments. Even one of Pasteur's disciples said about Pasteur's human rabies experiments, "The scientist's conscience smothered the conscience of the man."

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Should Animals Be Used For Research Thesis Statement

Whatever the case may be, it appears clear that the population in Africa and Neanderthal population in Europe and the Middle East were isolated for tens of thousands of years, perhaps far more than 100,000 years, and humans used a toolkit like the Neanderthals’ until something happened between 70 and 50 kya. Just happened is a matter of great controversy, and in recent years, several disciplines have converged on the issue and are drawing a clearer picture today. Some key findings that shed light came from global DNA studies, linguistics partnering with evolutionary theory, and brain studies. In the past generation, as has been applied to many areas, a startling picture of the human journey has emerged. , probably for flexible power generation. For animals that reproduce sexually, the mother’s mitochondria are passed to her offspring, while virtually none comes from the father, if any. Geneticists can measure mutations in and approximate when two different animals shared a common ancestor, whether they belong to the same species or not. Similarly, regarding nuclear DNA, the produces a male mammal, and mutations in the Y chromosome can also be analyzed to estimate when two men shared the same ancestor. , but scientists have been aligning DNA results with fossil dates, which are considered more reliable, and have been resolving some limitations. But if the timing is suspect for such genetic analyses, far more confidence exists for descent relationships. Human DNA testing is a burgeoning business, used for everything from freeing to to examining the genetic heritage of the .

Should Animals Be Used For Scientific Research ..

Animals Be Used For Research Thesis Statement…

After Africa began colliding with Asia, about 18 mya Asian animals quickly invaded and dominated Africa. The two primary exceptions were , both of which prospered at home in Africa and in Eurasia. Proboscideans did even better; they did not only become prominent in Eurasia, but they also migrated to North America by 16.5 mya. , as soon as they could, and quickly succeeded in all South American biomes, from rainforest to grasslands to mountains. They beat apes to the Western Hemisphere by 16.5 million years. Elephants have and . Their huge size and prehensile trunks, as well as their ability to eat a wide variety of vegetation, let proboscideans flourish everywhere that they possibly could. They even as a force. Until humans arrived, proboscideans were the most intelligent, adaptable, and successful land mammals ever and arguably outperformed the dinosaurs. But after nearly 20 million years of global success, they nearly all went extinct soon after encountering behaviorally modern humans. They went extinct in the Western Hemisphere, and there has long been controversy among scientists whether humans caused it, although the debate is fading as evidence of human agency becomes clearer.